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Atrial Flutter

Definition

The heart has 4 chambers. It has 2 upper chambers (atria) and 2 lower chambers (ventricles). Electrical signals regulate the heart beat. The signals also help the atria and ventricles work together in the same rhythm. The blood from the atria is pushed into the ventricles and leaves the heart to circulate to the rest of the body.

Atrial flutter is a type of abnormal fast beating (arrhythmia) in the atria. These fast beats make it difficult for the atria to push all the blood into the ventricles. As a result, the ventricles push less blood through the body.

Atrial flutter may be an acute or chronic disorder that comes and goes. Atrial flutter is not usually life-threatening when it is treated. However, it may increase your risk of developing blood clots and a stroke.

Anatomy of the Heart

Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Causes    TOP

Atrial flutter may be caused by the following:

  • Coronary artery disease (CAD)
  • Heart surgery—atrial flutter is most common during the first few weeks after open-heart surgery
  • Disease in other parts of the body that affects the functioning of the heart such as the lungs
  • Using substances such as caffeine, alcohol, diet pills, or certain types of prescription or over the counter medication that affect the electrical impulses of the heart
  • Stress and anxiety

Risk Factors    TOP

Factors that may increase your chances of atrial flutter:

Atrial flutter is more likely to develop in older adults.

Symptoms    TOP

Atrial flutter does not always produce symptoms. However, symptoms, when present, may include:

  • A fluttering or tremor-like feeling in the chest
  • Rapid heart beat or pounding sensation in the chest—palpitations
  • Pressure or discomfort in the chest
  • Shortness of breath
  • Anxiety
  • Lightheadedness or fainting

Diagnosis    TOP

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your doctor may also recommend that you see a cardiologist or arrhythmia specialist. This type of physician may be found in a larger hospital.

Your doctor may need pictures of your heart and information about how it functions. This can be done with:

Treatment    TOP

The goal of treating atrial flutter is to slow down the electrical impulses that are sent from the atria to the ventricles. Treatment aims at restoring normal rhythm and preventing future episodes. Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include the following:

Medications

Medication may be given to slow the rapid heart rate and change the atrial flutter to a normal rhythm. These medications may include:

  • Beta-blockers
  • Digoxin
  • Adenosine
  • Nonhydropyridine calcium channel antagonists

Other medications called antiarrhythmics may be used to change the rhythm back to normal. They may also help your heart maintain a normal rhythm.

Cardioversion

An external defibrillator is applied to the chest. It uses an electrical current to shock the heart back to its normal rhythm.

Ablation Therapy    TOP

Ablation can be performed during an electrophysiological study (EP) study on patients with recurring atrial flutter that cannot be controlled with medications. Using the same catheters, an area of the heart where an abnormal electrical rhythm is generated can be destroyed. This can be a cure for atrial flutter.

Blood Thinners    TOP

Blood thinners are an important therapy to prevent blood clots that can cause strokes or other serious complications. They can be used on those who have recurrent atrial flutter. They can also be used on those who are at an increased risk.

Prevention    TOP

To help reduce your chances of atrial flutter:

  • Reduce or eliminate your use of caffeine, stimulants, alcohol, nicotine, certain medications, or recreational drugs
  • Obtain treatment for any other heart or lung disease
  • Reduce your levels of stress and anxiety
  • Check with your doctor before taking any new medications, herbs, or supplements

RESOURCES:

American Heart Association
http://www.heart.org
Heart Rhythm Society
http://www.hrsonline.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Canadian Heart Rhythm Society
http://www.chrsonline.ca
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
http://www.heartandstroke.ca

References:

Atrial flutter. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115251/Atrial-flutter. Updated February 22, 2017. Accessed November 28, 2017.
Atrial flutter. Heart Rhythm Society website. Available at
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed November 28, 2017.
Other heart rhythm disorders. American Heart Association website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated December 21, 2016. Accessed November 28, 2017.
Last reviewed November 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael J. Fucci, DO, FACC
Last Updated: 12/20/2014

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This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

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