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Aortic Coarctation—Child

(Coarctation of the Aorta—Child)

Definition

The aorta is the main artery in the heart. It carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body. Aortic coarctation is the narrowing of the aorta. This slows or blocks blood flow. It is often associated with other heart and vascular conditions. Examples include abnormal heart valves or aneurysms, which can lead to further health problems.

Anatomy of the Heart

Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Causes    TOP

Aortic coarctation is a congenital heart defect. This means that it is present at birth. It occurs because of a problem with the way the aorta develops while the fetus is growing in the uterus.

Risk Factors    TOP

Aortic coarctation is more common in boys. Other factors that increase your child's risk of aortic coarctation include:

Symptoms    TOP

If your child’s condition is severe, symptoms of impaired blood flow will be present at birth. If aortic coarctation is not treated, it can lead to heart failure.

If this condition is not detected when your child is a baby, there may be other symptoms during childhood, such as:

  • Heart murmur
  • High blood pressure in the arms
  • A weak pulse in the legs
  • Cold legs and feet
  • Shortness of breath, especially with exercise
  • Legs that are underdeveloped, but better developed arms
  • Headaches
  • Lightheadedness
  • Fatigue
  • Chest pain

Diagnosis    TOP

You will be asked about your child's symptoms and medical history. A physical exam and blood tests will be done.

Imaging tests evaluate the heart and surrounding structures. This can be done with:

Treatment    TOP

Talk with the doctor about the best treatment plan for your child. Treatment depends on your child's age and how severe the condition is.

Treatment for Newborns

Your newborn will need treatment right away. Medications can be used to help blood flow to all parts of the body and improve contraction of the heart. One of the most common surgeries involves removing the narrow section of the aorta and reconnecting the 2 healthier ends.

Treatment for Children

Your child may need to take other medications to reduce fluid retention. Depending on your child’s condition, the doctor may also recommend surgery. Some of the options include:

  • Resection of the narrowed area in the aorta (the same type of surgery used in infants)
  • Subclavian flap aortoplasty—involves using a patch or part of the artery to make the area larger
  • Balloon angioplasty —involves using a balloon to widen the narrowed area

It is important to note that there will always be a risk, even into adulthood, of the development of other cardiovascular conditions.

Prevention    TOP

There are no current guidelines to prevent aortic coarctation.

RESOURCES:

American Heart Association
http://www.heart.org
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Canadian Cardiovascular Society
http://www.ccs.ca
Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery
http://www.canadianvascular.ca

References:

Coarctation of aorta. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.... Updated December 8, 2015. Accessed June 6, 2016.
Coarctation of the aorta. Cincinnati Children’s website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated December 2013. Accessed June 6, 2016.
Repair of coarctation of the aorta. Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed June 6, 2016.
Rothman A, Galindo A, Evans W, Collazos J, Restrepo H. Effectiveness and safety of balloon dilation of native aortic coarctation in premature and neonates weighing < or = 2,500 grams. Am J of Cardiology. 2010;105(8):1176-1180.
Vijayalakshmi K, Griffiths A, Hasan A, O'Sullivan J. Late hazards after repair of coarctation of the aorta. BMJ. 2008;336(7647):772-773.
Last reviewed June 2016 by Kari Kassir, MD
Last Updated: 6/3/2013

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