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Quercetin belongs to a class of water-soluble plant coloring substances called bioflavonoids. Bioflavonoids have strong antioxidant effects when they are studied in the test tube, and this is the basis for some of the health claims attached to them. However, growing evidence suggests that bioflavonoids do not in fact act as antioxidants in human beings.24 Nonetheless, as widely available plant substances, they are considered possible semi-nutrients, substances that are not essential for life but might help promote optimal health.
Quercetin is not an essential nutrient. It is found in red wine, grapefruit, onions, apples, black tea, and, in lesser amounts, in leafy green vegetables and beans. However, to get a therapeutic dosage, you'll have to take a supplement.
Quercetin supplements are available in pill and tablet form.
Therapeutic Dosages TOP
A typical dosage is 200 to 400 mg 3 times daily. A special type of quercetin, quercetin chalcone, is claimed to be absorbed better, but there is little reliable evidence to prove this.
Therapeutic Uses TOP
Quercetin is widely marketed as a treatment for allergic conditions such as asthma, hay fever, eczema, and hives. These proposed uses are based on test-tube research showing that quercetin prevents certain immune cells from releasing histamine, the chemical that triggers an allergic reaction.1,2 Quercetin may also block other substances involved with allergies.3 However, this evidence is extremely preliminary, far too preliminary to rely upon at all. There is as yet no direct evidence that taking quercetin supplements will reduce your allergy symptoms.
A different proposed use of quercetin does have some meaningful supporting evidence: prostatitis. This condition is an inflammation or infection of the prostate gland. The condition causes chronic pain and difficulty with urination and is sometimes called chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Conventional treatment for this condition is often unsatisfactory. One small double-blind, placebo-controlled study has found preliminary evidence that quercetin might help (see next section).4
As noted above, it has been suggested that quercetin’s antioxidant properties might make it helpful for preventing heart disease and strokes.6-10 However, the evidence that it works is highly incomplete. Keep in mind that other powerful antioxidants such as vitamin E and beta-carotene have been ineffective for preventing these conditions. There is limited evidence, however, from a single, small double-blind trial that quercetin might have the separate effect of lowering blood pressure when it is high.25
An animal study found that quercetin might protect rodents with diabetes from forming cataracts.16 Another intriguing finding from test-tube research is that quercetin seems to prevent a wide range of viruses from infecting cells and reproducing once they are inside cells. One study found that quercetin produced this effect against Herpes simplex, polio virus, and various respiratory viruses, including influenza.17,18 However, such studies are too indirect to tell us whether humans taking quercetin supplements can hope for benefits against diseases caused by those viruses.
What is the Scientific Evidence for Quercetin? TOP
A one-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 30 men with chronic pelvic pain ( prostatitis) tested the potential effectiveness of quercetin.4 Participants received either placebo or 500 mg of the supplement twice daily. The results showed that people who received quercetin experienced a statistically significant improvement in symptoms (such as pain), but those given placebo did not improve.
While these are promising results, the study was small and cannot be regarded as definitive. Furthermore, researchers failed to provide the usual statistical evaluation required for such studies (a statistical analysis that directly compares the results in the treatment group against those in the placebo group). Thus, further study will be necessary to discover whether quercetin is actually effective for prostatitis.
People with interstitial cystitis experience pain and discomfort in the bladder that is reminiscent of a bladder infection, but without the actual presence of such an infection. In a 6-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 20 people received either placebo or a supplement containing quercetin and other bioflavonoids.5 The results appeared to indicate better results in the quercetin group. However, this study has only been presented as an abstract and it is not clear from the writeup whether the results were statistically meaningful.
Safety Issues TOP
Quercetin appears to be quite safe. However, concerns have been raised that, under some circumstances, it might raise cancer risk. Quercetin "fails" a standard laboratory test called the Ames test, which is designed to identify chemicals that might be carcinogenic. Nonetheless, a bad showing on the Ames test does not definitely mean a chemical causes cancer. Most other evidence suggests that quercetin does not cause cancer and may, in fact, help prevent cancer.19,20,21 Still, one highly preliminary study suggests that quercetin combined with other bioflavonoids in the diet of pregnant women might increase the risk of infant leukemia.22 On this basis, pregnant women should probably avoid quercetin supplements. Maximum safe dosages for young children, nursing women, or people with serious liver or kidney disease have not been established.
Evidence suggests that use of quercetin supplements can elevate urine and blood levels of the substance homovanillic acid.23 While this itself should be harmless, lab tests for homovanillic acid are used to diagnose a rare, dangerous condition called neuroblastoma, and for this reason, use of quercetin supplements could potentially cause a false positive diagnosis of this condition.
References[ + ]
1. Ogasawara H, Middleton E Jr. Effect of selected flavonoids on histamine release (HR) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation by human leukocytes [abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1985;75(suppl):184.
2. Middleton E Jr. Effect of flavonoids on basophil histamine release and other secretory systems. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1986;213:493-506.
3. Yoshimoto T, Furukawa M, Yamamoto S, et al. Flavonoids: potent inhibitors of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1983;116:612-618.
4. Shoskes DA, Zeitlin SI, Shahed A, et al. Quercetin in men with category III chronic prostatitis: a preliminary prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Urology. 1999;54:960-963.
5. Rodriguez LV, Janzen N, Raz S, et al. Treatment of interstitial cystitis with a quercetin containing compound: a preliminary, double-blind placebo control trial. Presented at: American Urological Association 2001 Annual Meeting; June 2-7, 2001; Anaheim, CA.
6. Constant J. Alcohol, ischemic heart disease, and the French paradox. Coron Artery Dis. 1997;8:645-649.
7. Hayek T, Fuhrman B, Vaya J. Reduced progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice following consumption of red wine, or its polyphenols quercetin or catechin, is associated with reduced susceptibility of LDL to oxidation and aggregation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997;17:2744-2752.
8. Frankel EN, Waterhouse AL, Kinsella JE. Inhibition of human LDL oxidation by resveratrol. Lancet. 1993;341:1103-1104.
9. Alliangana DM. Effects of beta-carotene, flavonoid quercetin and quinacrine on cell proliferation and lipid peroxidation breakdown products in BHK-21 cells. East Afr Med J. 1996;73:752-757.
10. Keli SO, Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, et al. Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins, and incidence of stroke: the Zupthen study. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156:637-642.
11. Balasubramanian S, Govindasamy S. Inhibitory effect of dietary flavonol quercetin on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 1996;17:877-879.
12. Cross HJ, Tilby M, Chipman JK, et al. Effect of quercetin on the genotoxic potential of cisplatin. Int J Cancer. 1996;66:404-408.
13. Hoffman R, Graham L, Newlands ES. Enhanced anti-proliferative action of busulphan by quercetin on the human leukaemia cell line K562. Br J Cancer. 1989;59:347-348.
14. ElAttar TM, Virji AS. Modulating effect of resveratrol and quercetin on oral cancer cell growth and proliferation. Anticancer Drugs. 1999;10:187-193.
15. Yoshida M, Yamamoto M, Nikaido T. Quercetin arrests human leukemic T-cells in late G 1 phase of the cell cycle. Cancer Res. 1992;52:6676-6681.
16. Varma SD, Mizuno A, Kinoshita JH. Diabetic cataracts and flavonoids. Science. 1977;195:205-206.
17. Kaul TN, Middleton E Jr, Ogra PL. Antiviral effect of flavonoids on human viruses. J Med Virol. 1985;15:71-79.
18. Musci I, Pragai BM. Inhibition of virus multiplication and alteration of cyclic AMP level in cell cultures by flavonoids. Experientia. 1985;41:930-931.
19. Stavric B. Quercetin in our diet: from potent mutagen to probable anticarcinogen. Clin Biochem. 1994;27:245-248.
20. Friedman M, Smith GA. Factors which facilitate inactivation of quercetin mutagenicity. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1984;177:527-544.
21. ElAttar TM, Virji AS. Modulating effect of resveratrol and quercetin on oral cancer cell growth and proliferation. Anticancer Drugs. 1999;10:187-193.
22. Strick R, Strissel PL, Borgers S, et al. Dietary bioflavonoids induce cleavage in the MLL gene and may contribute to infant leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2000;97:4790-4795.
23. Weldin J, Jack R, Dugaw K, et al. Quercetin, an over-the-counter supplement, causes neuroblastoma-like elevation of plasma homovanillic acid. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2004;6:547-551.
24. Lotito SB, Frei B. Consumption of flavonoid-rich foods and increased plasma antioxidant capacity in humans: cause, consequence, or epiphenomenon? Free Radic Biol Med. 2006;41:1727-1746.
25. Edwards RL, Lyon T, Litwin SE, et al. Quercetin reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. J Nutr. 2007;137:2405-2411.
Last reviewed December 2015 by EBSCO CAM Review Board
Last Updated: 12/15/2015
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