|CRDAMC Homepage | CRDAMC Library Phone #: (254) 288-8366 | CRDAMC Library Fax #: (254) 288-8368|
Peppermint is a relative of numerous wild mint plants, deliberately bred in the late 1600s in England to become the delightful tasting plant so well known today. It is widely used as a beverage tea and as a flavoring or scent in a wide variety of products.
Peppermint tea also has a long history of medicinal use, primarily as a digestive aid and for the symptomatic treatment of cough, colds, and fever. Peppermint oil is used for chest congestion (Vicks VapoRub), as a local anesthetic (Solarcaine, Ben-Gay), and most recently in the treatment of irritable bowel disease, also known as spastic colon.
What Is Peppermint Used for Today?
Peppermint oil has shown promise for a variety of conditions that involve spasm of the intestinal tract. Most studies have involved irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), for which peppermint oil has shown considerable promise. Peppermint oil may also be helpful for reducing the pain caused by medical examinations of the colon and stomach, as well for decreasing the intestinal gas pain that frequently follows surgery.
Peppermint oil may also be helpful for dyspepsia (a condition that is similar to IBS, but involves the stomach instead of the intestines).
Weak evidence, far too preliminary to rely upon at all, hints that peppermint oil might help dissolve gallstones.1
Peppermint oil is also used in another way: as aromatherapy. This means that it is inhaled, often by adding it to a humidifier. Weak evidence hints that inhaled peppermint oil might be helpful for relief of mucus congestion of the lungs and sinuses.21,22 Even weaker evidence hints that inhaled peppermint oil might relieve postsurgical nausea.2 Peppermint was associated with improved nausea symptoms in a small randomized trial of 35 women after nonemergency cesarean section compared to placebo aromatherapy and standard antiemetic drugs.3737
Finally, a study performed in Iran reported that applying peppermint water (essentially, lukewarm peppermint tea) directly to the nipples helped prevent dryness and cracking caused by breastfeeding.33
What Is the Scientific Evidence for Peppermint? TOP
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
There have been numerous studies of peppermint oil for IBS.6-13,25,31,32,35,36. In one of the larger studies, 110 people with IBS were given either enteric-coated peppermint oil (187 mg) or placebo 3-4 times daily, 15 to 30 minutes before meals, for 4 weeks.8 The results showed significant improvements in abdominal pain, bloating, stool frequency, and flatulence. In a similar study, people who took peppermint oil capsules for 8 weeks also had less abdominal pain and discomfort compared to the placebo group.36
Not all of these studies have shown that peppermint oil is beneficial, though. It has been suggested that these inconsistencies were caused by the accidental inclusion of people who had conditions unrelated to IBS, but that cause similar symptoms. Presumably, peppermint oil may be less effective for these problems. A study published in 2007 pretested participants for lactose intolerance and celiac disease, the two conditions most easily mistaken for IBS.32 A total of 57 people with IBS symptoms and no evidence of the other two problems were enrolled in the study. Over a period of 4 weeks, participants were given either placebo or peppermint oil. At the end of the study period, 75% of the patients in the peppermint oil group showed a marked reduction of IBS symptoms (defined, for this purpose, as a reduction of IBS symptom scores by more than 50%). In comparison, only 38% of the participants given placebo showed an improvement of this magnitude, and this difference was statistically significant.
Other Forms of Spasm in the Digestive Tract
A barium enema involves introducing a solution containing the metal barium into the lower intestines. It commonly causes intestinal pain and spasm. A double-blind study of 141 individuals found that adding peppermint oil to the barium reduced the severity of intestinal spasm that occurred.14 Benefits were also seen in a large study conducted by different researchers.29
Another study found that peppermint oil reduced spasm in the stomach during a procedure called upper endoscopy.27
One study found that use of peppermint oil after C-section surgery reduced discomfort caused by intestinal gas.28
Dyspepsia (Minor Indigestion) TOP
Peppermint oil is often used in combination with other essential oils to treat minor indigestion.
For example, a double-blind, placebo-controlled study including 39 individuals found that an enteric-coated peppermint-caraway oil combination taken 3 times daily for 4 weeks significantly reduced dyspepsia pain as compared to placebo.15 Of the treatment group, 63.2% was pain free after 4 weeks, compared to 25% of the placebo group.
Results from a double-blind, comparative study including 118 individuals suggest that the combination of peppermint and caraway oil is comparably effective to the no-longer-available drug cisapride.16 After 4 weeks, the herbal combination reduced dyspepsia pain by 69.7%, whereas the conventional treatment reduced pain by 70.2%.
A preparation of peppermint, caraway, fennel, and wormwood oils was compared to the drug metoclopramide in another double-blind study enrolling 60 individuals.17 After 7 days, 43.3% of the treatment group was pain free compared to 13.3% of the metoclopramide group.
Note : Metoclopramide works by reducing gastric emptying time (in other words, speeding the passage of food from the stomach into the intestines). Interestingly, some evidence suggests that peppermint oil may have the same effect.34
The proper dosage of peppermint oil when treating irritable bowel syndrome is 0.2 ml to 0.4 ml three times a day of an enteric-coated capsule. The capsule has to be enteric-coated to prevent stomach distress.
When used in herbal combinations to treat stomach problems, peppermint oil is taken at lower doses, and it is not enteric-coated.
Safety Issues TOP
At the normal dosage, enteric-coated peppermint oil is believed to be reasonably safe in healthy adults.18,19 However, case reports and one study in rats hint that peppermint might reduce male fertility.30 The species Mentha spicata may be more problematic in this regard than the more common Mentha piperita.
Excessive doses of peppermint oil can be toxic, causing kidney failure and even death. Very high intake of peppermint oil can also cause nausea, loss of appetite, heart problems, loss of balance, and other nervous system problems.
Safety in young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease has not been established. In particular, peppermint can cause jaundice in newborn babies, so don't try to use it for colic.
Use of peppermint oil may increase levels of the drug cyclosporine in the body.26 If you are taking cyclosporine and wish to take peppermint oil, notify your physician in advance, so that your blood levels of cyclosporine can be monitored and your dose adjusted if necessary. Conversely, if you are already taking both peppermint oil and cyclosporine, do not stop taking the peppermint without informing your physician. When you stop peppermint, your cyclosporine levels may fall.
Interactions You Should Know About
If you are taking:
References[ + ]
1. Somerville KW, Ellis WR, Whitten BH, et al. Stones in the common bile duct: experience with medical dissolution therapy. Postgrad Med J. 1985;61:313-316.
2. Tate S. Peppermint oil: a treatment for postoperative nausea. J Adv Nurs. 1997;26:543-549.
3. Gunn JW. The carminative action of volatile oils. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1920;16:39-47.
4. Taylor BA, Luscombe DK, Duthie HL. Inhibitory effect of peppermint on gastrointestinal smooth muscle [abstract]. Gut. 1983;24:A992.
5. Hawthorn M, Ferrante J, Luchowski E, et al. The actions of peppermint oil and menthol on calcium channel dependent processes in intestinal, neuronal and cardiac preparations. Aliment Pharmcol Ther. 1988;2:101-118.
6. Rees WD, Evans BK, Rhodes J. Treating irritable bowel syndrome with peppermint oil. Br Med J. 1979;2:835-836.
7. Dew MJ, Evans BK, Rhodes J. Peppermint oil for the irritable bowel syndrome: a multicentre trial. Br J Clin Pract. 1984;38:394,398.
8. Liu JH, Chen GH, Yeh HZ, et al. Enteric-coated peppermint-oil capsules in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized trial. J Gastroenterol. 1997;32:765-768.
9. Kline RM, Kline JJ, Di Palma J, et al. Enteric-coated, pH-dependent peppermint oil capsules for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in children. J Pediatr. 2001;138:125-128.
10. Carling L, Svedberg LE, Hulten S, et al. Short-term treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome: a placebo-controlled trial of peppermint oil against hyoscyaminme. Opusc Med. 1989;34:55-57.
11. Nash P, Gould SR, Barnardo DE. Peppermint oil does not relieve the pain of irritable bowel syndrome. Br J Clin Pract. 1986;40:292-293.
12. Lawson MJ, Knight RE, Tran K, et al. Failure of enteric-coated peppermint oil in the irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized double-blind crossover study. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1988;3:235-238.
13. Carling L, Svedberg LE, Hulten S. Short-term treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome: a placebo controlled trial of peppermint oil against hyoscyaminme. Opusc Med. 1989;34:55-57.
14. Sparks MJ, O'Sullivan P, Herrington AA, et al. Does peppermint oil relieve spasm during barium enema? Br J Radiol. 1995;68:841-843.
15. May B, Kuntz H-D, Kieser M, et al. Efficacy of a fixed peppermint oil/caraway oil combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia. Arzneimittelforschung. 1996;46:1149-1153.
16. Madisch A, Heydenreich CJ, Wieland V, et al. Treatment of functional dyspepsia with a fixed peppermint oil and caraway oil combination preparation as compared to cisapride. A multicenter, reference-controlled double-blind equivalence study. Arzneimittelforschung. 1999;49:925-932.
17. Westphal J, Horning M, Leonhardt K. Phytotherapy in functional upper abdominal complaints. Results of a clinical study with a preparation of several plants. Phytomedicine. 1996;2:285-291.
18. Spindler P, Madsen C. Subchronic toxicity study of peppermint oil in rats. Toxicol Lett. 1992;62:215-220.
19. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy. Menthae Piperitae Aetheroleum (peppermint oil). Exeter, UK: ESCOP; 1996-1997:1-6. Monographs on the Medicinal Uses of Plant Drugs, Fascicule 3.
20. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy. Menthae Piperitae Aetheroleum (peppermint oil). Exeter, UK: ESCOP, 1996-1997:5. Monographs on the Medicinal Uses of Plant Drugs, Fascicule 3.
21. European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy. Menthae Piperitae Aetheroleum (peppermint oil). Exeter, UK: ESCOP, 1996-1997:1-6. Monographs on the Medicinal Uses of Plant Drugs, Fascicule 3.
22. Morice AH, Marshall AE, Higgins KS, Grattan TJ. Effect of inhaled menthol on citric acid induced cough in normal subjects. Thorax. 1994;49:1024-1026.
23. Gobel H, Fresenius J, Heinze A, et al. Effectiveness of Oleum menthae piperitae and paracetamol in therapy of headache of the tension type. Nervenarzt. 1996;67:672-681.
24. Gobel H, Schmidt G, Soyka D. Effect of peppermint and eucalyptus oil preparations on neurophysiological and experimental algesimetric headache parameters. Cephalalgia. 1994;14:228-234.
25. Pittler MH, Ernst E. Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome: a critical review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93:1131-1135.
26. Wacher VJ, Wong S, Wong HT. Peppermint oil enhances cyclosporine oral bioavailability in rats: comparison with D-alpha-tocopheryl poly(ethylene glycol 1000) succinate (TPGS) and ketoconazole. J Pharm Sci. 2002;91:77-90.
27. Hiki N, Kurosaka H, Tatsutomi Y, et al. Peppermint oil reduces gastric spasm during upper endoscopy: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy controlled trial. Gastrointest Endosc. 2003;57:475-482.
28. Fazel N. The effect of supermint oil on pain severity after caesarean section. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13(suppl):S126.
29. Asao T, Kuwano H, Ide M, et al. Spasmolytic effect of peppermint oil in barium during double-contrast barium enema compared with Buscopan. Clin Radiol. 2003;58:301-305.
30. Akdogan M, Ozguner M, Kocak A, et al. Effects of peppermint teas on plasma testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone levels and testicular tissue in rats. Urology. 2004;64:394-398.
31. Grigoleit HG, Grigoleit P. Peppermint oil in irritable bowel syndrome. Phytomedicine. 2005;12:601-606.
32. Cappello G, Spezzaferro M, Grossi L, et al. Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Dig Liver Dis. 2007 Apr 7. [Epub ahead of print]
33. Sayyah Melli M, Rashidi MR, Delazar A, et al. Effect of peppermint water on prevention of nipple cracks in lactating primiparous women: a randomized controlled trial. Int Breastfeed J. 2007 Apr 19. [Epub ahead of print]
34. Inamori M, Akiyama T, Akimoto K, et al. Early effects of peppermint oil on gastric emptying: a crossover study using a continuous real-time (13)C breath test (BreathID system). J Gastroenterol. 2007;42:539-542.
35. Ford AC, Talley NJ, Spiegel BM, et al. Effect of fibre, antispasmodics, and peppermint oil in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2008;337:a2313.
36. Merat S, Khalili S, Mostajabi P, Ghorbani A, Ansari R, Malekzadeh R. The effect of enteric-coated, delayed-release peppermint oil on irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55(5):1385-1390.
37. Lane B, Cannella K, et al. Examination of the effectiveness of peppermint aromatherapy on nausea in women post C-section. J Holist Nurs. 2012;30(2):90-104.
Last reviewed December 2015 by EBSCO CAM Review Board
Last Updated: 12/15/2015
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at email@example.com. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.