|CRDAMC Homepage | CRDAMC Library Phone #: (254) 288-8366 | CRDAMC Library Fax #: (254) 288-8368|
Magnesium is an essential nutrient, meaning that your body needs it for healthy functioning. It is found in significant quantities throughout the body and used for numerous purposes, including muscle relaxation, blood clotting, and the manufacture of ATP (adenosine triphosphate, the body's main energy molecule).
It has been called nature's calcium channel blocker. The idea refers to magnesium's ability to block calcium from entering muscle and heart cells. A group of prescription heart medications work in a similar way, although much more powerfully. This may be the basis for some of magnesium's effects when it is taken as a supplement in fairly high doses.
Requirements for magnesium increase as we grow and age. The official US and Canadian recommendations for daily intake are as follows:
Note : These recommendations refer to total intake from food plus supplements. The average diet provides a daily intake of magnesium very close to these amounts.
Kelp is very high in magnesium. Other good sources include blackstrap molasses, brewer's yeast (not to be confused with nutritional yeast), and buckwheat. The National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements provides this list of other foods that contain magnesium:125
Magnesium Deficiency TOP
In the United States, the average dietary intake of magnesium is lower than the recommended daily allowance; however, it is unclear whether this truly indicates deficiency, or if the recommended allowance is too high.1,2Alcohol abuse, surgery, diabetes, zinc supplements, certain types of diuretics ( thiazide and loop diuretics, but not potassium-sparing diuretics), estrogen and oral contraceptives, and the medications cisplatin and cyclosporin have been reported to reduce the body's level of magnesium or increase magnesium requirements.3,4,5,88-92 If you are taking potassium supplements, you may receive greater benefit from them if you take extra magnesium as well.
Therapeutic Dosages TOP
A typical supplemental dosage of magnesium ranges from the nutritional needs described above to as high as 600 mg daily. For premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation), an alternative approach is to start taking 500 to 1,000 mg daily, beginning on day 15 of the menstrual cycle and continuing until menstruation begins.
Magnesium citrate may be slightly more absorbable than other forms of magnesium.100
Therapeutic Uses TOP
Preliminary double-blind studies suggest that regular use of magnesium supplements may help prevent migraine headaches,10-12,101 hearing loss caused by exposure to loud noises,13 and kidney stones,14,126-128 and help treat high blood pressure,15-18,122angina,19,97,115dysmenorrhea (menstrual cramps),21,22pregnancy-induced leg cramps,41 and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) (including menstrual migraines).23,24
People with diabetes are often deficient in magnesium,27-29 and according to some (but not all) studies, magnesium supplementation may enhance blood sugar control and insulin sensitivity in people with diabetes or prediabetic conditions.98,102-109,118, 129 Magnesium may also help control blood pressure in people with both hypertension and diabetes.123,129
Magnesium supplements do not appear to be very helpful, if at all, for preventing preeclampsia.6,7,52,53,110 (Magnesium, taken by injection rather than orally, however, is probably helpful for treating preeclampsia that already exists.69,76,77)
Magnesium is sometimes said to decrease symptoms of restless legs syndrome, but the evidence that it works consists solely of open trials without a placebo group, and such studies are not trustworthy.25,26 (For information on why this is so, see Why Does This Database Rely on Double-blind Studies?) Very weak evidence hints at possible benefits for insomnia.111
Magnesium has also been suggested as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit disorder, fatigue, fibromyalgia, low HDL ("good") cholesterol, periodontal disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and stroke. However, there is virtually no evidence at all that it is helpful for any of these conditions.
Magnesium is sometimes advocated for stabilizing the heart after a heart attack, but one study actually found that use of magnesium slighltly increased risk of sudden death, repeat heart attack, or need for bypass surgery in the year following the initial heart attack.78 However, magnesium may be helpful in congestive heart failure.112 In a well-designed trial involving 79 patients with severe congestive heart failure, magnesium (as magnesium orotate) significantly improved survival and clinical symptoms after one year compared to a placebo.121
Alternative medical literature frequently mentions magnesium as a treatment for asthma.124 However, this idea seems to be based primarily on the use of intravenous magnesium as an emergency treatment for asthma. When you take something by mouth, it's a very different matter from having it injected into your veins. Studies of oral magnesium for asthma have shown more negative than positive results.42,113,116 Inhaled, aerosolized magnesium, however, has shown some promise.117
Although magnesium is sometimes mentioned as a treatment to help keep the heart beating normally, a 6-month, double-blind trial of 170 people did not find it effective for preventing a particular heart rhythm abnormality called atrial fibrillation.43 However, a small double-blind, placebo-controlled trial found that magnesium supplements reduced episodes of arrhythmia in individuals with congestive heart failure (CHF).82 One possible explanation: People with congestive heart failure often take drugs ( loop diuretics) that deplete magnesium. The combination of magnesium deficiency with digoxin (another drug given for CHF) may cause arrhythmias.4,93-95 Thus, it is possible that the benefits seen here were caused by correction of that depletion.
What Is the Scientific Evidence for Magnesium? TOP
A double-blind study found that regular use of magnesium helps prevent migraine headaches. In this 12-week trial, 81 people with recurrent migraines were given either 600 mg of magnesium daily or placebo.54 By the last 3 weeks of the study, the treated group's migraines had been reduced by 41.6%, compared to a reduction of 15.8% in the placebo group. The only side effects observed were diarrhea (in about one-fifth of the participants) and, less often, digestive irritation.
Similar results have been seen in other smaller double-blind studies.55,56,114 One study found no benefit,57 but it has been criticized on many significant points, including using an excessively strict definition of what constituted benefit.58
Noise-related Hearing Loss
Kidney Stones TOP
Magnesium inhibits the growth of calcium oxalate stones in the test tube 60 and decreases stone formation in rats.61 Studies in human have shown some promise, but results have been mixed. In one 2-year open study, 56 people taking magnesium hydroxide had fewer recurrences of kidney stones than 34 people not given magnesium.62 In contrast, a double-blind (and, hence, more reliable) study of 124 people found that magnesium hydroxide was essentially no more effective than placebo.63
In other trials, results were similar, but other patient factors could have affected the outcomes. For example, magnesium supplements alone did not reduce oxalate kidney stone recurrence, nor was it an effective treatment. Although recurrence rates were improved when magnesium was combined with potassium citrate, it was no better than potassium citrate alone. Treatment of oxalate stones involves other forms of treatment, like dietary changes and increased water intake. Other patient factors included those with restrictive, extended bed rest, no magnesium deficiency, or not stopping other treatments when using magnesium. Overall, magnesium may be useful for some people, but it may not be effective for everyone.126-128
Magnesium works with calcium and potassium to regulate blood pressure. Several studies suggest that magnesium supplements can reduce blood pressure in people with hypertension,64-67,122,123 although some studies have not shown this.
In one study, 82 people (aged 40-75 years old) with diabetes, high blood pressure, and low levels of magnesium were randomized to receive 2.5 g of magnesium chloride or placebo for 4 months.123 Those in the treatment group had lower blood pressure readings compared to those in the control group.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 187 people with angina, 6 months of treatment with magnesium at a dose of 730 mg daily improved exercise tolerance and enhanced overall quality of life.97 Benefits were also seen in a similar, smaller double-blind trial.68
After a Heart Attack TOP
In a 1-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 468 individuals who had just experienced a heart attack, use of a magnesium supplement at a dose of 360 mg daily failed to prevent heart-related events (defined as heart attack, sudden cardiac death, or need for cardiac bypass), and actually may have increased the risk slightly.78
A 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 50 women with menstrual pain found that treatment with magnesium significantly improved symptoms.70 The researchers reported evidence of reduced levels of prostaglandin F 2 alpha, a hormone-like substance involved in pain and inflammation.
Similarly positive results were seen in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 21 women.71
Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms TOP
A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 32 women found that magnesium taken from day 15 of the menstrual cycle to the onset of menstrual flow could significantly improve PMS symptoms, specifically mood changes.72
Another small double-blind preliminary study found that regular use of magnesium could reduce symptoms of PMS-related fluid retention.73 In this study, 38 women were given magnesium or placebo for 2 months. The results showed no effect after one cycle, but by the end of two cycles, magnesium significantly reduced weight gain, swelling of extremities, breast tenderness, and abdominal bloating.
In addition, one small double-blind study (20 participants) found that magnesium supplementation can help prevent menstrual migraines.74
Pregnancy-induced Leg Cramps TOP
Pregnant women frequently experience painful leg cramping. One double-blind trial of 73 pregnant women found that 3 weeks of magnesium supplements significantly reduced leg cramps as compared to placebo.83
Safety Issues TOP
The US government has set the following upper limits for use of magnesium supplements:
In general, magnesium appears to be quite safe when taken at or below recommended dosages. The most common complaint is loose stools. However, people with severe kidney or heart disease should not take magnesium (or any other supplement) except on the advice of a physician. Maximum safe dosages have not been established for young children. There has been one case of death caused by excessive use of magnesium supplements in a developmentally and physically disabled child.84 Pregnant or nursing women should not exceed the nutritional dosages presented under Requirements/Sources.
If taken at the same time, magnesium can interfere with the absorption of antibiotics in the tetracycline family,85 and, possibly, the drug nitrofurantoin.96 Also, when combined with oral diabetes drugs in the sulfonylurea family, magnesium may cause blood sugar levels to fall more than expected.86
Interactions You Should Know About TOP
If you are taking:
References[ + ]
1. Alaimo K, McDowell MA, Briefel RR, et al. Dietary intake of vitamins, minerals and fiber of persons age 2 months and over in the United States: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, phase 1, 1988-91. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics. 1994;258:1-26.
2. Wester PO. Magnesium. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987;45(suppl):1305-1312.
3. Spencer H, Norris C, Williams D. Inhibitory effects of zinc on magnesium balance and magnesium absorption in man. J Am Coll Nutr. 1994;13:479-484.
4. Martin BJ, Milligan K. Diuretic-associated hypomagnesemia in the elderly. Arch Intern Med. 1987;147:1768-1771.
5. Seelig MS. Interrelationship of magnesium and estrogen in cardiovascular and bone disorders, eclampsia, migraine and premenstrual syndrome. J Am Coll Nutr. 1993;12:442-458.
6. Spatling L, Spatling G. Magnesium supplementation in pregnancy. A double-blind study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1988;95:120-125.
7. Sibai BM. Prevention of preeclampsia: a big dissapointment. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998;179:1275-1278.
8. Lewis NM, Marcus MS, Behling AR, et al. Calcium supplements and milk: effects on acid-base balance and on retention of calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;49:527-533.
9. Andon MB, Ilich JZ, Tzagournis MA, et al. Magnesium balance in adolescent females consuming a low- or high-calcium diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63:950-953.
10. Peikert A, Wilimzig C, Kohne-Volland R. Prophylaxis of migraine with oral magnesium: results from a prospective, multi-center, placebo-controlled and double-blind randomized study. Cephalalgia. 1996;16:257-263.
11. Taubert K. Magnesium in migraine. Results of a multicenter pilot study [in German; English abstract]. Fortschr Med. 1994;112:328-330.
12. Facchinetti F, Sances G, Borella P, et al. Magnesium prophylaxis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium. Headache. 1991;31:298-301.
13. Attias J, Weisz G, Almog S, et al. Oral magnesium intake reduces permanent hearing loss induced by noise exposure. Am J Otolaryngol. 1994;15:26-32.
14. Johansson G, Backman U, Danielson BG, et al. Biochemical and clinical effects of the prophylactic treatment of renal calcium stones with magnesium hydroxide. J Urol. 1980;124:770-774.
15. Shechter M, Sharir M, Labrador MJ, et al. Oral magnesium therapy improves endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 2000;102:2353-2358.
16. Sanjuliani AF, de Abreu Fagundes VG, Francischetti EA. Effects of magnesium on blood pressure and intracellular ion levels of Brazilian hypertensive patients. Int J Cardiol. 1996;56:177-183.
17. Witteman JC, Grobbee DE, Derkx FH, et al. Reduction of blood pressure with oral magnesium supplementation in women with mild to moderate hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60:129-135.
18. Dyckner T, Wester PO. Effect of magnesium on blood pressure. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1983;286:1847-1849.
19. Shechter M, Merz CN, Paul-Labrador M, et al. Beneficial antithrombotic effects of the association of pharmacological oral magnesium therapy with aspirin in coronary heart disease patients. Magnes Res. 2000;13:275-284.
20. Kummerow FA, Zhou Q, Mafouz MM. Effects of trans fatty acids on calcium influx into arterial endothelial cells. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70:832-838.
21. Fontana-Klaiber H, Hogg B. Therapeutic effects of magnesium in dysmenorrhea [in German; English abstract]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1990;79:491-494.
22. Seifert VB, Wagler P, Dartsch S, et al. Magnesium—a new therapeutic alternative in primary dysmenorrhea [translated from German]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1989;111:755-760.
23. Facchinetti F, Borella P, Sances G, et al. Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes. Obstet Gynecol. 1991;78:177-181.
24. Facchinetti F, Sances G, Borella P, et al. Magnesium prophylaxis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium. Headache. 1991;31:298-301.
25. Hornyak M, Voderholzer U, Hohagen F, et al. Magnesium therapy for periodic leg movements-related insomnia and restless legs syndrome: An open pilot study. Sleep. 1998;21:501-505.
26. Popoviciu L, Asgian B, Delast-Popoviciu D, et al. Clinical, EEG, electromyographic and polysomnographic studies in restless legs syndrome caused by magnesium deficiency. Rom J Neurol Psychiatry. 1993;31:55-61.
27. Elamin A, Tuvemo T. Magnesium and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1990;10:203-209.
28. Tosiello L. Hypomagnesemia and diabetes mellitus: a review of clinical implications. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156:1143-1148.
29. Eibl NL, Kopp HP, Nowak HR, et al. Hypomagnesemia in type II diabetes: effect of a 3-month replacement therapy. Diabetes Care. 1995;18:188-192.
30. Martineau J, Barthelemy C, Garreau B, et al. Vitamin B6, magnesium, and combined B6-Mg: therapeutic effects in childhood autism. Biol Psychiatry. 1985;20:467-478.
31. Pfeiffer SI, Norton J, Nelson L, et al. Efficacy of vitamin B6 and magnesium in the treatment of autism: a methodology review and summary of outcomes. J Autism Dev Disord. 1995;25:481-493.
32. Barthelemy C, Garreau B, Leddet I, et al. Behavioral and biological effects of oral magnesium, vitamin B6 and combined magnesium-vitamin B6 administration in autistic children. Magnes Bull. 1981;2:150-153.
33. Lelord G, Callaway E, Muh JP. Clinical and biological effects of high doses of vitamin B6 and magnesium on autistic children. Acta Vitaminol Enzymol. 1982;4:27-44.
34. Lelord G, Muh JP, Barthelemy C. Effects of pyridoxine and magnesium on autistic symptoms—initial observations. J Autism Dev Disord. 1981;11:219-230.
35. Martineau J, Garreau B, Barthelemy C, et al. Effects of vitamin B6 on averaged evoked potentials in infantile autism. Biol Psychiatry. 1981;16:627-641.
36. Rimland B, Callaway E, Dreyfus P. The effect of high doses of vitamin B6 on autistic children: a double-blind crossover study. Am J Psychiatry. 1978;135:472-475.
37. Cook R, Botting D. Use of orthomolecular therapy for those with behavioural problems and mental handicap: a review. Complement Ther Med. 1997;5:228-232.
38. Rimland B. Controversies in the treatment of autistic children: vitamin and drug therapy. J Child Neurol. 1988;(suppl 3):S68-S72.
39. Rimland B. Vitamin B6 versus fenfluramine: a case-study in medical bias. J Nutr Med. 1991;2:321-322.
40. Werbach MR. Autism. Int J Alt Complement Med. 1996;8.
41. Dahle LO, Berg G, Hammar M, et al. The effect of oral magnesium substitution on pregnancy-induced leg cramps. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;173:175-180.
42. Bernstein WK, Khastgir T, Khastgir A, et al. Lack of effectiveness of magnesium in chronic stable asthma. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in normal subjects and in patients with chronic stable asthma. Arch Intern Med. 1995;155:271-276.
43. Frick M, Darpo B, Ostergren J, et al. The effect of oral magnesium, alone or as an adjuvant to sotalol, after cardioversion in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J. 2000;21:1177-1185.
44. Finstad EW, Newhouse IJ, Lukaski HC, et al. The effects of magnesium supplementation on exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:493-498.
45. Brilla LR, Haley TF. Effect of magnesium supplementation on strength training in humans. J Am Coll Nutr. 1992;11:326-329.
46. Weller E, Bachert P, Meinck HM, et al. Lack of effect of oral Mg-supplementation on Mg in serum, blood cells, and calf muscle. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;30:1584-1591.
47. Ruddel H, Werner C, Ising H. Impact of magnesium supplementation on performance data in young swimmers. Magnes Res. 1990;3:103-107.
48. Ripari P, Pieralisi G, Giamberardino MA, et al. Effects of magnesium pidolate on some cardiorespiratory submaximal effort parameters [abstract]. Magnes Res. 1989;2:70.
49. Brilla LR, Gunter KB. Effect of magnesium supplementation on exercise time to exhaustion. Med Exerc Nutr Health. 1995;4:230-233.
50. Terblanche S, Noakes TD, Dennis SC, et al. Failure of magnesium supplementation to influence marathon running performance or recovery in magnesium-replete subjects. Int J Sport Nutr. 1992;2:154-164.
51. Dragani L, Giamberardino MA, Vecchiet L. Effects of magnesium administration on muscle damage from physical exercise. In: Vecchiet L, ed. Magnesium and Physical Activity. New York, NY: Parthenon Publishing Group; 1994:253-260.
52. Sibai BM, Villar MA, Bray E. Magnesium supplementation during pregnancy: A double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989;161:115-119.
53. Kovacs L, Molnar BG, Huhn E, et al. Magnesium substitution in pregnancy. A prospective, randomized double-blind study [translated from German]. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 1988;48:595-600.
54. Peikert A, Wilimzig C, Kohne-Volland R. Prophylaxis of migraine with oral magnesium: results from a prospective, multi-center, placebo-controlled and double-blind randomized study. Cephalalgia. 1996;16:257-263.
55. Taubert K. Magnesium in migraine. Results of a multicenter pilot study [in German; English abstract]. Fortschr Med. 1994;112:328-330.
56. Facchinetti F, Sances G, Borella P, et al. Magnesium prophylaxis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium. Headache. 1991;31:298-301.
57. Pfaffenrath V, Wessely P, Meyer C, et al. Magnesium in the prophylaxis of migraine—a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Cephalalgia. 1996;16:436-440.
58. Gaby AR. Research Review. Nutr Healing. March 1997.
59. Attias J, Weisz G, Almog S, et al. Oral magnesium intake reduces permanent hearing loss induced by noise exposure. Am J Otolaryngol. 1994;15:26-32.
60. Li MK, Blacklock NJ, Garside J. Effects of magnesium on calcium oxalate crystallization. J Urol. 1985;133:123-125.
61. Parivar F, Low RK, Stoller ML. The influence of diet on urinary stone disease. J Urol. 1996;155:432-440.
62. Johansson G, Backman U, Danielson BG, et al. Biochemical and clinical effects of the prophylactic treatment of renal calcium stones with magnesium hydroxide. J Urol. 1980;124:770-774.
63. Ettinger B, Citron JT, Livermore B, et al. Chlorthalidone reduces calcium oxalate calculous recurrence but magnesium hydroxide does not. J Urol. 1988;139:679-684.
64. Sanjuliani AF, de Abreu Fagundes VG, Francischetti EA. Effects of magnesium on blood pressure and intracellular ion levels of Brazilian hypertensive patients. Int J Cardiol. 1996;56:177-183.
65. Witteman JC, Grobbee DE, Derkx FH, et al. Reduction of blood pressure with oral magnesium supplementation in women with mild to moderate hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60:129-135.
66. Dyckner T, Wester PO. Effect of magnesium on blood pressure. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1983;286:1847-1849.
67. Henderson DG, Schierup J, Schodt T. Effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure and electrolyte concentrations in hypertensive patients receiving long term diuretic treatment. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1986;293:664-665.
68. Shechter M, Sharir M, Labrador MJ, et al. Oral magnesium therapy improves endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation. 2000;102:2353-2358.
69. Livingston JC, Livingston LW, Ramsey R, et al. Magnesium sulfate in women with mild preeclampsia: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;101:217-220.
70. Seifert VB, Wagler P, Dartsch S, et al. Magnesium—a new therapeutic alternative in primary dysmenorrhea [translated from German]. Zentralbl Gynakol. 1989;111:755-760.
71. Fontana-Klaiber H, Hogg B. Therapeutic effects of magnesium in dysmenorrhea [in German; English abstract]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1990;79:491-494.
72. Facchinetti F, Borella P, Sances G, et al. Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes. Obstet Gynecol. 1991;78:177-181.
73. Wyatt KM, Dimmock PW, Jones PW, et al. Efficacy of vitamin B6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: systematic review. BMJ. 1999;318:1375-1381.
74. Facchinetti F, Sances G, Borella P, et al. Magnesium prophylaxis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium. Headache. 1991;31:298-301.
75. De Souza MC, Walker AF, Robinson PA, et al. A synergistic effect of a daily supplement for 1 month of 200 mg magnesium plus 50 mg vitamin B 6 for the relief of anxiety-related premenstrual symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2000;9:131-139.
76. The Magpie Trial Collaborative Group. Do women with pre-eclampsia, and their babies, benefit from magnesium sulphate? The Magpie Trial: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;359:1877-1890.
77. Rudnicki M, Frolich A, Rasmussen WF, et al. The effect of magnesium on maternal blood pressure in pregnancy-induced hypertension. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1991;70:445-450.
78. Galloe AM, Rasmussen HS, Jorgensen LN, et al. Influence of oral magnesium supplementation on cardiac events among survivors of an acute myocardial infarction. BMJ. 1993;307:585-587.
79. Tolbert L, Haigler T, Waits MM, et al. Brief report: lack of response in an autistic population to a low dose clinical trial of pyridoxine plus magnesium. J Autism Dev Disord. 1993;23:193-199.
80. Nye C, Brice A. Combined vitamin B6-magnesium treatment in autism spectrum disorder (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;CD003497.
81. Findling RL, Maxwell K, Scotese-Wojtila L, et al. High-dose pyridoxine and magnesium administration in children with autistic disorder: an absence of salutary effects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Autism Dev Disord. 1997;27:467-478.
82. Bashir Y, Sneddon JF, Staunton A, et al. Effects of long-term oral magnesium chloride replacement in congestive heart failure secondary to coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 1993;72:1156-1162.
83. Dahle LO, Berg G, Hammar M, et al. The effect of oral magnesium substitution on pregnancy-induced leg cramps. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;173:175-180.
84. McGuire JK, Kulkarni MS, Baden HP. Fatal hypermagnesemia in a child treated with megavitamin/megamineral therapy. Pediatrics. 2000;105:E18.
85. Tatro D, ed. Drug Interaction Facts. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons; 1999.
86. Drug Evaluations Annual. Vol 2. Milwaukee, WI: American Medical Association; 1994.
87. Gaspar AZ, Gasser P, Flammer J. The influence of magnesium on visual field and peripheral vasospasm in glaucoma. Ophthalmologica. 1995;209:11-13.
88. Elisaf M, Bairaktari E, Kalaitzidis R, Siamopoulos K. Hypomagnesemia in alcoholic patients. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1998;22:244-246.
89. Kelepouris E and Agus ZS. Hypomagnesemia: renal magnesium handling. Semin Nephrol. 1998;18:58-73.
90. Tosiello L. Hypomagnesemia and diabetes mellitus. A review of clinical implications. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156:1143-1148.
91. al-Ghamdi SM, Cameron EC, and Sutton RA. Magnesium deficiency: pathophysiologic and clinical overview. Am J Kidney Dis. 1994;24:737-752.
92. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1999.
93. Cohen L, Kitzes R. Magnesium sulfate and digitalis-toxic arrhythmias. JAMA. 1983;249:2808-2810.
94. Toffaletti J. Electrolytes, divalent cations, and blood gases (magnesium). Anal Chem. 1991;63:192R-194R.
95. Whang R, Oei TO, Watanabe A. Frequency of hypomagnesemia in hospitalized patients receiving digitalis. Arch Intern Med. 1985;145:655-656.
96. Naggar VF, Khalil SA. Effect of magnesium trisilicate on nitrofurantoin absorption. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1979;25:857-863.
97. Shechter M, Bairey Merz CN, Stuehlinger HG, et al. Effects of oral magnesium therapy on exercise tolerance, exercise-induced chest pain, and quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 2003;91:517-521.
98. Rodriguez-Moran M, Guerrero-Romero F. Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic subjects: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:1147-1152.
99. Lichodziejewska B, Klos J, Rezler J, et al. Clinical symptoms of mitral valve prolapse are related to hypomagnesemia and attenuated by magnesium supplementation. Am J Cardiol. 1997;79:768-772.
100. Walker AF, Marakis G, Christie S, et al. Mg citrate found more bioavailable than other Mg preparations in a randomised, double-blind study. Magnes Res. 2003;16:183-91.
101. Wang F, Van Den Eeden SK, Ackerson LM, et al. Oral magnesium oxide prophylaxis of frequent migrainous headache in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Headache. 2003;43:601-10.
102. Guerrero-Romero F, Tamez-Perez H, Gonzalez-Gonzalez G, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Diabetes Metab. 2004;30:253-258.
103. Paolisso G, Scheen A, D'Onofrio F, Lefebvre P. Magnesium and glucose homeostasis. Diabetologia. 1990;33:511-514.
104. de Valk HW, Verkaaik R, van Rijn HJM, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation in insulin-requiring type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med. 1998;15:503-507.
105. Lima M, Cruz T, Carreiro Pousada J, et al: The effect of magnesium supplementation in increasing doses on the control of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1998;21:682-686.
106. Paolisso G, Sgambato S, Gambardella A, et al. Daily magnesium supplements improve glucose handling in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:1161-1167.
107. Paolisso G, Sgambato S, Pizza G, et al. Improved insulin response and action by chronic magnesium administration in aged NIDDM subjects. Diabetes Care. 1989;12:265-269.
108. Sjorgren A, Floren CH, Nilsson A. Oral administration of magnesium hydroxide to subjects with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Magnesium. 1988;121:16-20.
109. Smellie WS, O’Reilly DS, Martin BJ, Santamaria J. Magnesium replacement and glucose tolerance in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;57:594-596.
110. Sibai BM. Magnesium sulfate prophylaxis in preeclampsia: lessons learned from recent trials. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190:1520-1526.
111. Held K, Antonijevic IA, Kunzel H, et al. Oral MG(2+) supplementation reverses age-related neuroendocrine and sleep EEG changes in humans. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2002;35:135-143.
112. Branea I, Gaita D, Dragulescu I, et al. Assessment of treatment with orotate magnesium in early postoperative period of patients with cardiac insufficiency and coronary artery by-pass grafts (ATOMIC). Rom J Intern Med. 2004;37:287-296.
113. Fogarty A, Lewis S, Scrivener S, et al. Oral magnesium and vitamin C supplements in asthma: a parallel group randomized placebo-controlled trial. Clin Exp Allergy. 2003;33:1355-1359.
114. Wang F, Van Den Eeden SK, Ackerson LM, et al. Oral magnesium oxide prophylaxis of frequent migrainous headache in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Headache. 2003;43:601-610.
115. Pokan R, Hofmann P, von Duvillard SP, et al. Oral magnesium therapy, exercise heart rate, exercise tolerance, and myocardial function in coronary artery disease patients. Br J Sports Med. 2006 Jul 6. [Epub ahead of print].
116. Gontijo-Amaral C, Ribeiro MA, Gontijo LS, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation in asthmatic children: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun 21. [Epub ahead of print]
117. Hughes R, Goldkorn A, Masoli M, et al. Use of isotonic nebulised magnesium sulphate as an adjuvant to salbutamol in treatment of severe asthma in adults: randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2003;361:2114-2117.
118. Song Y, He K, Levitan EB, et al. Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized double-blind controlled trials. Diabet Med. 2006;23:1050-1056.
119. Carpenter TO, Delucia MC, Zhang JH, et al. A randomized controlled study of effects of dietary magnesium oxide supplementation on bone mineral content in healthy girls. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Oct 3. [Epub ahead of print]
120. Whelan AM, Jurgens TM, Bowles SK. Natural health products in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40:836-849. Epub 2006 May 2.
121. Stepura OB, Martynow AI. Magnesium orotate in severe congestive heart failure (MACH). Int J Cardiol. 2008 Feb 15.
122. Hatzistavri LS, Sarafidis PA, Georgianos PI, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation reduces ambulatory blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2009;22(10):1070-1075.
123. Guerrero-Romero F, Rodríguez-Morán M. The effect of lowering blood pressure by magnesium supplementation in diabetic hypertensive adults with low serum magnesium levels: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Hum Hypertens. 2009;23(4):245-251.
124. Kazaks AG, Uriu-Adams JY, Albertson TE, Shenoy SF, Stern JS. Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on measures of airway resistance and subjective assessment of asthma control and quality of life in men and women with mild to moderate asthma: a randomized placebo controlled trial. J Asthma. 2010;47(1):83-92.
125. Dietary supplement fact sheet: magnesium. Office of Dietary Supplements website. Available at: http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-HealthProfessional . Accessed September 10, 2012.
126. Massey L. Magnesium therapy for nephrolithiasis. Magnes Res. 2005;18(2):123-126.
127. Zerwekh JE, Odvina CV, Wuermser LA, Pak CY. Reduction of renal stone risk by potassium-magnesium citrate during 5 weeks of bed rest. J Urol. 2007;177(6):2179-2184.
128. Prezioso D, Strazzullo P, Lotti T, et al. Dietary treatment of urinary risk factors for renal stone formation. A review of CLU Working Group. 2015;87(2):105-120.
129. Dibaba DT, Xun P, Song Y, Rosanoff A, Shechter M, He K. The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure in individuals with insulin resistance, prediabetes, or noncommunicable chronic diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;106(3):921-929.
130. Park H, Qin R, Smith TJ, et al. North Central Cancer Treatment Group N10C2 (Alliance): a double-blind placebo-controlled study of magnesium supplements to reduce menopausal hot flashes. Menopause. 2015;22(6):627-632.
Last reviewed December 2015 by EBSCO CAM Review Board
Last Updated: 3/12/2018
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.