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Supplement Forms/Alternate Names

Dihydroxyacetone pyruvate (DHAP), calcium pyruvate, magnesium pyruvate, potassium pyruvate, sodium pyruvate, pyruvic acid


Pyruvate is a compound that helps the body make energy. It is found in apples, cheese, and red wine. Pyruvate has been used to promote weight loss and to boost athletic performance. It can be taken as a pill or powder. It can also be inhaled, applied to the skin, and injected into the bloodstream by a healthcare provider.


5 to 30 grams daily

What Research Shows

Not Enough Data to Assess

  • Weight Loss 1

Editorial process and description of evidence categories can be found at EBSCO NAT Editorial Process.

Safety Notes

It is likely safe to take pyruvate in small doses for a short time, but gas, bloating, diarrhea, and increased LDL (“bad”) cholesterol are possible. Not enough studies have been done to say whether it is safe to take for a long period. It is also not known whether it is safe to take by women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.


Talk to your doctor about any supplements or therapy you would like to use. Some can interfere with treatment or make conditions worse.



1. Onakpoya I, Hunt K, et al. Pyruvate supplementation for weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2014;54(1):17-23.

Last reviewed July 2019 by EBSCO NAT Review Board Eric Hurwitz, DC  Last Updated: 4/10/2020