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Medications for Kidney Stones

The information provided here is meant to give you a general idea about each of the medications listed below. Only the most general side effects are included. Ask your doctor if you need to take any special precautions. Use each of these medications as recommended by your doctor, or according to the instructions provided. If you have further questions about usage or side effects, contact your doctor.

Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

NSAIDs can reduce pain or discomfort.

Over-the-counter and prescription NSAIDs:

  • Ibuprofen
  • Naproxen

Prescription NSAIDs:

  • Diclofenac
  • Indomethacin

Possible side effects include:

  • Abdominal pain, cramps, or discomfort
  • Heartburn or indigestion
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Rash

Prescription Opioids

Opioids may be used in cases of moderate to severe pain. Examples include:

  • Hydromorphone
  • Morphine

Possible side effects include:

Medications for Kidney Stone Prevention    TOP

Other medical conditions can put you at a high risk for kidney stones. You may be prescribed medication that will treat or manage the condition while reducing the risk of kidney stone development. They include:

Potassium Citrate

Common names include:

  • Polycitra-K
  • Urocit-K

Citrates are used to make the urine more alkaline. This helps prevent some kinds of kidney stones from forming.

Allopurinol

Common name: Zyloprim

This medication reduces the amount of uric acid in the blood. This helps to control gout and to minimize the formation of uric acid kidney stones.

Hydrochlorothiazide

Common names include:

  • Esidrix
  • Hydro-chlor
  • Hydro-D
  • HydroDIURIL
  • Microzide
  • Oretic

Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic and is usually used to treat high blood pressure. It also helps to decrease the amount of calcium released by the kidneys into the urine. In addition, it is used to prevent calcium-containing stones from forming. Diuretics can cause the body to lose potassium.

Acetohydroxamic Acid

Common name: Lithostat

This medication is used in combination with antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections that lead to the formation of struvite kidney stones. This drug should not be used during pregnancy or while breastfeeding. Since this drug is associated with a high rate of side effects, such as deep vein thrombosis and hemolytic anemia, its use is limited.

Cellulose Sodium Phosphate

Common name: Calcibind

This medication is used to prevent the formation of calcium-containing kidney stones in people who absorb too much calcium from the gastrointestinal tract.

Mercaptopropionylglycine

Common names include:

  • Tiopronin
  • Thiola

This medication is used to control the formation of cystine stones.

Penicillamine

Common names include:

  • Cuprimine
  • Depen

Penicillamine is used to treat cystine stones.

Special Considerations    TOP

Follow these general medication guidelines:

  • Take your medication as directed. Do not change the amount or schedule.
  • Ask what side effects could occur. Report them to your doctor.
  • Talk to your doctor before you stop taking any prescription medication.
  • Do not share your prescription medication.
  • Medications can be dangerous when mixed. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking more than one medication, including over-the-counter products and supplements.
  • Plan ahead for refills as needed.

When to Contact Your Doctor

Call your doctor immediately if you experience any unusual symptoms, including:

References:

Coe FL, Evan A, Worcester, E. Kidney stone disease. J Clin Invest. 2005;115(10):2598-2608.
Diclofenac (Systemic). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T908253/Diclofenac. Updated February 6, 2017. Accessed March 6, 2017.
Hydromorphone. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T233043/Hydromorphone. Updated February 6, 2017. Accessed March 6, 2017.
Ibuprofen. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T233086/Ibuprofen. Updated February 6, 2017. Accessed March 6, 2017.
Indomethacin. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T233024/Indomethacin. Updated February 6, 2017. Accessed March 6, 2017.
Kidney stones. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed March 6, 2017.
Moe OW. Kidney stones: pathophysiology and medical management. Lancet. 2006;367(9507):333-344.
Morphine sulfate. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T233078/Morphine-Sulfate. Updated February 6, 2017. Accessed March 6, 2017.
Nephrolithiasis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114904/Nephrolithiasis. Updated January 15, 2017. Accessed March 6, 2017.
What are kidney stones? Urology Care Foundation website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed March 6, 2017.
11/29/2006 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114904/Nephrolithiasis: Hollingsworth JM, Rogers MA, Kaufman SR, et al. Medical therapy to facilitate urinary stone passage: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2006;368(9542):1171-1179.
Last reviewed March 2017 by Adrienne Carmack, MD
Last Updated: 3/15/2015

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