Carl R. Darnall Army Medical Center - Health Library

Health Library Home>Disease, Condition, & Injury Fact Sheets>Article

Urinary Tract Infections in Childhood

(UTI in Childhood)

Definition

The urinary tract carries urine from the kidneys to the outside of the body. It includes the kidneys, bladder, and tubes that connect them. The tubes from the kidney to bladder are called ureters. The tube from the bladder to the outside of the body is called the urethra. A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection in any of these structures.

The Urinary Tract
si55551330_urinary tract child.jpg

Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Causes

UTIs are caused by bacteria. The bacteria may enter the bladder or the kidneys.

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your child's chance of a urinary tract infection include:

  • Abnormalities of the urinary tract, including:
    • Vesicoureteral reflux —urine flows backwards from the bladder up into the kidneys
    • Urinary obstruction—something is blocking or slowing the flow of urine
  • Holding urine for long periods of time
  • Not fully emptying the bladder
  • Poor hygiene and toilet habits
  • Clothing that is too tight, especially if it is not cotton
  • Family history of UTIs
  • Uncircumcised penis

Symptoms

Symptoms include:

  • Feeling the need to urinate frequently
  • Only producing a small amount of urine
  • Burning or painful urination
  • Fever
  • Diarrhea
  • Irritability
  • Fatigue
  • Stomachache
  • Foul-smelling urine
  • Blood in the urine
  • Potty-trained children wetting themselves

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about symptoms and past health. A physical exam will be done. The doctor may also ask for a urine sample. Tests may include:

  • Urinalysis—a laboratory examination of a urine sample
  • Urine culture —to identify the specific bacteria involved
  • Complete blood count and other blood tests if your child has a fever

Imaging tests may be ordered if UTIs recur. The test may include ultrasound or specialized scans and x-rays to look for problems in tract structure.

Treatment

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for your child. Treatment options include:

Antibiotics

Antibiotics will help fight the bacteria that is causing the infection. Some severe infections may need to have antibiotics delivered by IV or an injection.

Fluids

Fluids can help to flush the bacteria out of the system. It will also decrease the concentration of the urine. This may make it more comfortable to urinate.

Pain and Fever Relief

UTIs can be uncomfortable and cause fever. Over-the-counter pain medicine can help.

Note —Aspirin is not recommended for children with a current or recent viral infection. Check with the doctor before giving your child aspirin.

Prevention

To help reduce your child's chances of a urinary tract infection:

  • Talk to your child's doctor if your child has an abnormality of the urinary system. Your child may need surgery.
  • Make sure that girls learn to wipe from front to back.
  • Encourage your child to go to the bathroom often—at least several times a day.
  • Retract the foreskin of the penis on a regular basis. This will help to keep the area clean.
  • If your child has UTIs often, the doctor may prescribe antibiotics. This may help to prevent a new infection.
RESOURCES:

Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
http://familydoctor.org

National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse
http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

About Kids Health—The Hospital for Sick Children
http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca

Health Canada
https://www.canada.ca

REFERENCES:

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) clinical practice guideline on diagnosis and management of initial UTI in febrile infants and children aged 2 to 24 months. Pediatrics. 2011 Sep;128(3):595.

Urinary tract infection. Cleveland Clinic website. Available at: http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic_Urinary_Tract_Infections. Accessed January 28, 2021.

Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115591/Urinary-tract-infection-UTI-in-children. Accessed January 28, 2021.

Urinary tract infection (UTI) prevention. Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center website. Available at: http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/u/uti-prevention. Accessed January 28, 2021.

Last reviewed March 2021 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Chelsea Skucek, MSN, BS, RNC-NIC  Last Updated: 1/28/2021