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Risk Factors for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD)

A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition.

It is possible to develop TMD with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing TMD. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.

Risk factors for TMD include:

Stress-related Habits

Some of the stress-related habits that may increase your risk of TMD include:

  • Habitually clenching and unclenching your jaw
  • Biting your lip
  • Grinding your teeth during the day and/or at night in your sleep
  • Constantly or very regularly chewing things, such as gum or ice, for long periods of time

Medical Conditions

The following medical conditions may increase your risk of TMD:

  • Misaligned teeth or misaligned bite
  • Jaw or facial deformities
  • Arthritic conditions, such as:
  • Synovitis, an inflammation of the membrane that lines the temporomandibular joint
  • History of jaw or facial injuries such as fractures or dislocations of the jaw
  • Muscle pain or spasm of the chewing muscles
  • Psychological illness

Age    TOP

Most people report TMD symptoms between the ages of 30 and 50.

Gender    TOP

TMD is more common in women than in men.

Ill-fitting Dentures    TOP

Poorly fitted dentures are thought to be a risk factor for TMD.

Other Risk Factors    TOP

There is some evidence that women taking hormone replacement therapy are more likely to develop symptoms of TMD.

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References

Temporomandibular disorders. American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Published 2013. Accessed February 22, 2017.
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.... Updated May 11, 2015. Accessed February 22, 2017.
TMJ. American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated December 2010. Accessed February 22, 2017.
TMJ. Mouth Healthy—American Dental Association website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed February 22, 2017.
TMJ (temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders). National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research website. Available at: https://www.nidcr.nih.gov/oralhealth/Topics/TMJ/TMJDisorders.htm. Updated April 2015. Accessed February 22, 2017.
Last reviewed February 2017 by Michael Woods, MD, FAAP
Last Updated: 3/15/2015

 

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