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Risk Factors for Parkinson Disease
by Rosalyn Carson-DeWitt, MD
A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition.
It is possible to develop Parkinson disease with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing Parkinson’s disease. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.
Factors that may increase your chance of Parkinson disease:
Most people develop Parkinson disease after the age of 50 (age of onset ranges from 35-85). It is relatively unusual to develop Parkinson disease before the age of 40, although it is certainly possible.
Men are about 1.5 times more likely than women to develop Parkinson disease.
A number of genes have been associated with Parkinson disease. Generally, people with these abnormal genes develop Parkinson disease before the age of 50. This type of Parkinson tends to run in families. However, the vast majority of Parkinson disease occurs in older individuals (over the age of 60), and the role of genetics in these individuals is less clear.
Research suggests that blacks and Asians have a slightly lower rate of Parkinson disease than Caucasians.
Occupational and Environmental Factors
Exposure to chemicals, such as herbicides and pesticides, is thought to increase your risk of developing Parkinson disease. You also have a greater risk of Parkinson disease if you live in a rural area, drink well water, or live on a farm. This may be due to an increased exposure to herbicides and pesticides.
Other Health Conditions
You may have a higher risk of Parkinson disease if you had certain health conditions, such as:
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Parkinson disease. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at:
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Updated September 2015. Accessed November 29, 2016.
4/7/2014 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115172/Parkinson-disease: Marras C, Hincapié CA, Kristman VL, et al. Systematic review of the risk of Parkinson's disease after mild traumatic brain injury: results of the international collaboration on mild traumatic brain injury prognosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014;95(3S):S238-S244.
Last reviewed November 2016 by Rimas Lukas, MD
Last Updated: 5/20/2015
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