A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition.
It is possible to develop obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing OCD. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.
Risk factors may include:
OCD tends to develop in late adolescence or early adulthood. However, it can begin as early as preschool age and as late as age 40.
Research suggests that genes may play a role in the development of OCD in some cases. The condition tends to run in families. A person who has OCD has a 25% chance of having a blood relative who has it.
One study found that children have inherited OCD symptoms in 45%-60% of cases, while adults have inherited symptoms in 27%-47% of cases.
OCD often occurs in people who have other anxiety disorders, depression, Tourette syndrome, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance abuse, eating disorders, and certain personality disorders.
PANDAS, which refers to Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders associated with Streptococcal Infections, is a term that refers to a group of children who have OCD and/or a tic disorder, which gets worse or is related to strep throat. Researchers are studying what causes this. One theory is that antibodies in the body may interact with the brain.
OCD symptoms often occur during stress from major life changes, such as loss of a loved one, divorce, relationship difficulties, problems in school, or abuse.
OCD symptoms may worsen during and immediately after pregnancy. In this case, fluctuating hormones can trigger symptoms. Postpartum OCD is characterized by disturbing thoughts and compulsions regarding the baby’s well-being.
About OCD. International OCD Foundation website. Available at: https://iocdf.org/about-ocd. Accessed January 13, 2017.
Moretti G, Pasquini M, Mandarelli G, et al. What every psychiatrist should know about PANDAS: a review. Clin Pract Epidemol Ment Health. 2008;4:13.
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114503/Obsessive-compulsive-disorder-OCD. Updated June 13, 2016. Accessed January 13, 2017.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). National Institute of Mental Health website. Available at: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd/index.shtml. Updated January 2016. Accessed January 13, 2017.
van Groothest DS, Cath DC, Beekman AT, Boomsma DI. Twin studies on obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2005;8(5):450-458.
Last reviewed December 2016 by Adrian Preda, MD Last Updated: 5/20/2015