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Conditions InDepth: Menopause

Menopause is the natural end to menstruation. Menopause can start as early as 40 years old or as late as 60 years old. If menopause occurs prior to age 40, this is thought to be abnormal and is called premature menopause.

Menopause is the result of the depletion of egg cells from the ovaries and the reduction of female hormones. Menopause is considered complete when you have been without your period for a full year. Rather than a single point in time, menopause is a process or transitional period when women move away from the phase of life where reproduction is possible.

Menopause is a normal part of life. It marks the end of a long, slow process that begins when ovaries begin to produce less estrogen and progesterone. These female hormones are both important for normal menstrual cycles and successful pregnancy. Surgery to remove the ovaries, called an oophorectomy, in premenopausal women causes menopause to begin prematurely. This is known as surgical menopause.

In addition to its role in reproduction, estrogen is an important hormone for maintaining bone health. It may also play important roles in heart health, skin elasticity, and brain function.

Stages of Menopause

Perimenopause:

  • May begin 3-5 years before your last menstrual period
  • Lasts about one year after your last menstrual period
  • Signs and symptoms may appear during this phase

Menopause:

  • Complete cessation of menstrual periods
  • You have had no menstrual periods for one year, undergo surgical menopause, or have a blood test confirmation of menopause
  • Childbearing is no longer naturally possible

Postmenopause:

  • Begins after your last menstrual period
  • You no longer menstruate.
  • The risk of certain health problems increases. These health problems include heart disease and osteoporosis.
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References:

Menopause. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114698/Menopause. Updated July 22, 2016. Accessed October 6, 2016.
Menopause basics. Office on Women's Health website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated September 29, 2010. Accessed February 27, 2014.
The menopause years. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed February 27, 2014.
Last reviewed March 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review BoardKim A. Carmichael, MD
Last Updated: 3/15/2015

 

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