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Risk Factors for Macular Degeneration

A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition.

It is possible to develop macular degeneration with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing macular degeneration. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.

Risk Factors Include:

Age

Adult macular degeneration is more common in people over 50, and the risk increases with advancing age.

Gender

Adult macular degeneration is more common in women.

Ethnicity

According to the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, adult macular degeneration is more common in people who are Caucasian.

Genetic Factors

Genetic factors appear to be very common in early-onset types of macular degeneration. Specific genetic causes for adult macular degeneration have not been identified. However, a positive family history may increase risk.

Medical Factors

Cataract surgery

High blood pressure

Lifestyle Factors

The following factors all increase your risk of macular degeneration:

Certain Medications

According to the National Registry of Drug-Induced Ocular Side Effects, taking certain drugs may increase your risk of developing adult macular degeneration. If you are taking any of these drugs, talk with your doctor about your risk of macular degeneration.

These drugs include:

  • Acetazolamide
  • Aluminum nicotinate
  • Broxyquinoline
  • Dichlorphenamide
  • Epinephrine
  • Ethoxzolamide
  • Griseofulvin
  • Iodide and iodine solutions and compounds
  • Iodochlorhydroxyquin
  • Iodoquinol
  • Iothalamate meglumine and/or sodium
  • Iothalamic acid
  • Methazolamide
  • Niacin
  • Niacinamide
  • Nicotinyl alcohol

The following drugs may be linked to adult macular degeneration, but there is no conclusive evidence at this time:

  • Allopurinol
  • Betaxolol
  • Chymotrypsin
  • Dipivefrin
  • DPE
  • Indomethacin
  • Levobunolol
  • Naproxen
  • Phenylephrine
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References:

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.... Updated May 27, 2016. Accessed November 28, 2016.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD). National Eye Institute (NEI) website. Available at: https://nei.nih.gov/health/maculardegen. Updated September 2015. Accessed November 28, 2016.
SanGiovanni JP, Chew EY, Clemons TE, et al. The relationship of dietary lipid intake and age-related macular degeneration in a case-control study: AREDS Report No 20. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125A(5):671-679.
What is macular degeneration? American Macular Degeneration Foundation website. Available at: https://www.macular.org/what-macular-degeneration. Accessed November 28, 2016.
6/17/2014 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance. Available at: http://www.dynamed...: Chew EY, Clemons TE, Agrón E. et al. Ten-year follow-up of age-related macular degeneration in the age-related eye disease study: AREDS report no. 36. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014;132(3):272-272.
Last reviewed November 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
Last Updated: 5/20/2015

 

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