A lifelong, gluten-free diet is the only treatment for celiac disease. Fortunately, it is extremely effective. Symptoms often go away within days of starting the diet. (Some symptoms, such as certain dental problems, may be permanent). Complete healing of damaged villi lining the intestines may take months or years.
Additional intake of gluten can damage the intestine, even if you have no symptoms. Nutritional supplements, given intravenously, may be needed if the intestinal damage is significant and does not heal.
Since gluten is present in many foods (such as bread and pasta) and it is often an additive to many foods, the diet can be complicated and frustrating. Many people consult with a dietitian who can help with meal planning. Support groups are also helpful with dietary issues associated with celiac disease.
Foods to Avoid
To follow a gluten-free diet, you must avoid all foods containing:
This list includes most bread, pasta, cereal, and processed foods. Special gluten-free breads and pastas are available. They are made with potato, rice, soy, or bean flour.
Many people with celiac disease also become lactose intolerant. If you are lactose intolerant, you may also need to avoid milk products. In some people, lactose intolerance resolves after following a gluten-free diet.
Managing the Diet
Maintaining a gluten-free diet requires a lot of vigilance since gluten is included in many unexpected foods and beverages. When buying processed and packaged foods, carefully read all labels. If you are unsure if a food contains gluten, don’t eat it until you find out definitively.
Examples of other foods that contain gluten include:
Ordering at restaurants can also be challenging since many foods on the menu may contain gluten. Rather than shying away from eating at restaurants, call ahead or look at a menu online to see what options are available.
Celiac disease. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: https://familydoctor.org/condition/celiac-disease. Updated August 2017. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Celiac disease. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114570/Celiac-disease. Updated February 7, 2017. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Celiac disease. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gastrointestinal-disorders/malabsorption-syndromes/celiac-disease. Updated May 2016. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Celiac disease. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/celiac-disease. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Last reviewed December 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Daus Mahnke, MD Last Updated: 12/31/2015