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Conditions InDepth: Celiac Disease
by Rick Alan
Celiac disease (also called celiac sprue, nontropical sprue, and gluten-sensitive enteropathy) is an autoimmune disease affecting the digestive tract. When people with celiac disease eat food with gluten—a type of protein found in wheat, rye, and barley—it provokes an immune reaction that causes flattening and damage to the small protrusions (villi) in the small intestine that absorb nutrients.
The resulting smooth surface in the lining of the intestine inhibits the ability to digest and absorb nutrients in many, if not all, foods. As a result, people with untreated celiac disease can suffer from malnutrition and a host of symptoms caused by malnutrition. Celiac disease is also classified as a disease of malabsorption.
It is not known exactly why people with celiac disease react to gluten-containing foods in such a negative manner. If you have celiac disease, chances are that some members of your immediate family have it as well. The disease can occur at any age. In some cases, symptoms of the disease do not emerge until after some form of trigger. Triggers can include an infection, pregnancy, severe stress, surgery, or physical injury. To prevent symptoms, a person with celiac disease must avoid foods containing gluten.
What are the risk factors for celiac disease?
What are the symptoms of celiac disease?
How is celiac disease diagnosed?
What are the treatments for celiac disease ?
Are there screening tests for celiac disease?
How can I reduce my risk of celiac disease?
What questions should I ask my doctor?
What is it like to live with celiac disease?
Where can I get more information about celiac disease?
Celiac disease. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: https://familydoctor.org/condition/celiac-disease. Updated August 2017. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Celiac disease. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114570/Celiac-disease. Updated February 7, 2017. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Celiac disease. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at:
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Updated May 2016. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Celiac disease. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/celiac-disease. Accessed January 10, 2018.
Collin P, Thorell L, Kaukinen K, Maki M. The safe threshold for gluten contamination in gluten-free products. Can trace amounts be accepted in the treatment of coeliac disease? Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004;19(12):1277-1283.
Last reviewed December 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Daus Mahnke, MD
Last Updated: 12/31/2015
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