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Conditions InDepth: Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder, formerly known as manic-depression, is a treatable condition that typically causes extreme swings in mood, thought, energy, and behavior. There can often be periods of normal mood between episodes. Bipolar disorder is a medical problem and is not caused by personal weakness or a character flaw.

The mood swings associated with bipolar disorder are different from the average ups and downs experienced in everyday life. In severe cases, bipolar disorder can be associated with psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations, delusions, or thought disorganization. These symptoms can result in damaged relationships, poor job or school performance, and even suicide. When treated appropriately, people with this condition can lead full and productive lives.

Bipolar disorder affects an estimated 2%-3% of American adults (18 years and older). The condition typically develops in late adolescence or early adulthood. However, some people have their first symptoms during childhood, and some develop symptoms late in life. Bipolar disorder is a long-term illness that must be carefully managed by a medical professional throughout a person's life.

The cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it tends to run in families. Specific genes may play a role, but it is not caused by one single gene. Additional factors, including stressors at home, work, or school, are believed to be involved in its onset.

People with bipolar disorder are at increased risk for suicide, substance abuse, and high-risk behaviors such as reckless driving and sexual promiscuity. Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder, tend to occur at a higher rate in people with bipolar disorder.

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References:

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Bipolar disorder in adults. National Institute of Mental Health website. Available at:
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Updated November 2015. Accessed September 12, 2016.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Association; 2013.
Estevez RF, Suppes T. Maintenance treatment in bipolar I disorder. In: Yatham LN, Kusumakar V, ed. Bipolar Disorder: A clinician’s guide to biological treatments. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group, LLC; 2009:107-152.
Injury, prevention & control: Data & statistics (WISQARS). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
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Updated May 4, 2016. Accessed September 12, 2016.
Merikangas KR, Akiskal HS, Angst J, et al. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64(5):543-552.
Price AL, Marzanni-Nissen GR. Bipolar disorders: a review. Am Fam Physician. 2012;85(5):483-493.
Statistics. National Institute of Mental Health website. Available at:
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Stern T, Rosenbaum J, Fava M, Biederman J, Rauch S. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier; 2008.
Last reviewed September 2016 by Rimas Lukas, MD
Last Updated: 9/17/2014

 

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