|CRDAMC Homepage | CRDAMC Library Phone #: (254) 288-8366 | CRDAMC Library Fax #: (254) 288-8368|
Screening for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
by Jacquelyn Rudis
The purpose of screening is early diagnosis and treatment. Screening tests are usually given to people without current symptoms, but who may be at high risk for certain diseases or conditions.
There are no screening tests for CAD itself. Instead, most screening is aimed at prevention of CAD and identifying the risk factors associated with the development of CAD.
Screening Guidelines and Tests
The following are regular screening tests that help to identify risk factors for developing CAD. These tests are often done as part of regular physical exams.
Blood tests can help look for conditions that can lead to CAD. These include:
Your body weight should be checked at each exam once you reach the age of 20. Your doctor will assess your body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference to determine if you are at a healthy weight. Excess weight increases blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose levels. All of these compound your risk of CAD.
Screening Tests for High Risk Populations
If you are at high risk of developing CAD, you doctor may recommend screening tests to look for signs of CAD. These include:
Elevated C-reactive protein levels may indicate an inflammatory response in the body. This elevation is associated with a higher risk for CAD.
If your doctor suspects that you are at risk of developing CAD, you may have an ECG. This test records the electrical activity of your heart through electrodes attached to the skin. An ECG may be able to show changes in your heart's rhythm or damage to heart muscle. However, a normal ECG does not mean you are free of CAD, since most early changes are not seen on this test.
Your doctor may order chest x-rays to check your heart's size your lungs for signs of congestion.
Cardiac CT Scan
Also known as coronary artery calcium scoring, this noninvasive x-ray examination detects calcium levels in the coronary arteries, expressing the findings as a calcium score. Calcium build-up is a marker of CAD.
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD), the hardening of the arteries outside of the heart, is also a marker for increased cardiac risk. An ankle-brachial index measurement is done to screen for and diagnose PAD. Blood pressure is measured at your ankle and at your arm. If blood pressure is lower in your ankle, it indicates that an artery between your heart and your leg may be blocked. Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease, and its presence in one area of the body increases your risk for disease in other areas as well.
Carotid Intima-media Thickness (IMT)
Measuring the thickness of the two innermost layers of the arterial wall may detect the presence of atherosclerosis. However, research has not determined if the relationship to CAD is clinically significant enough to recommend measurement of IMT as a screening tool.
Balbarini A, Buttitta F, Limbruno U, et al. Usefulness of carotid intima-media thickness measurement and peripheral B-mode ultrasound scan in the clinical screening of patients with coronary artery disease. Angiology. 2000;51(4):269-279.
C-reactive protein (CRP) and other biomarkers as cardiac risk factors. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.... Updated February 25, 2016. Accessed March 5, 2018.
Coronary artery disease (CAD). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.... Updated February 28, 2018. Accessed March 5, 2018.
Cardiac CT for calcium scoring. Radiology Info—Radiological Society of North American website. Available at:https://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=ct_calscoring. Updated January 20, 2018. Accessed March 5, 2018.
Heart-health screenings. American Heart Association website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated June 1, 2017. Accessed March 5, 2018.
Zebrack JS, Muhlestein JB, Horne BD, Anderson JL. Intermountain Heart Collaboration Study Group. C-reactive protein and angiographic coronary artery disease: independent and additive predictors of risk in subjects with angina. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39(4):632-637.
Last reviewed March 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael J. Fucci, DO, FACC
Last Updated: 3/15/2015
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.