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Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. Water-soluble vitamins are stored in the body in limited amounts. Because they are excreted through the urine, it is a good idea to have them in your daily diet.

Functions

Vitamin B6's functions include:

  • Helping with amino acid and protein metabolism
  • Enabling red blood cell metabolism
  • Helping the nervous system function efficiently
  • Helping the immune system function efficiently
  • Converting tryptophan (an amino acid) to niacin (a vitamin)
  • Enabling the breakdown of glycogen to glucose
  • Aiding in the metabolism, transportation, and distribution of selenium
  • Assisting in the metabolism of calcium and magnesium

Recommended Intake:    TOP

Age Group (in years)Recommended Dietary Allowance
FemalesMales
1-30.5 milligrams (mg)0.5 mg
4-80.6 mg0.6 mg
9-131.0 mg1.0 mg
14-181.2 mg1.3 mg
19-501.3 mg1.3 mg
Pregnancy1.9 mgn/a
Lactation2.0 mgn/a
51 +1.5 mg1.7 mg

Vitamin B6 Deficiency    TOP

Primary deficiency of vitamin B6 is rare—most foods contain the vitamin. Secondary deficiency may result in certain situations, including malabsorption, alcoholism, some medications, and cigarette smoking. Symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency include:

  • Skin inflammation and irritation
  • Glossitis—sore or inflamed tongue
  • Confusion
  • Depression
  • Irritability and nervousness
  • Cheilosis—cracking and scaling of the lips (including the corners of the mouth)
  • Convulsions—especially in newborns
  • Anemia

Vitamin B6 Toxicity    TOP

The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for vitamin B6 from dietary sources and supplements combined is 100 mg per day for adults. Symptoms of vitamin B6 toxicity include:

  • Poor coordination
  • Nausea
  • Skin sores
  • Sensitivity to sunlight

Major Food Sources    TOP

FoodServing Size Vitamin B6 Content
(mg)
Breakfast cereal, fortified 25%¾ cup 0.5
(check Nutrition Facts label)
Beef liver, pan fried3 ounces0.9
Potato, boiled1 cup0.4
Banana1 medium 0.4
Chicken breast, roasted, no skin3 ounces0.5
Chickpeas, canned 1 cup1.1
Turkey, meat only, roasted3 ounces0.4
Ground beef, 85% lean3.0 ounces0.3
Spaghetti sauce1 cup0.4
Waffles, ready to heat1 waffle0.3
Mixed nuts, dry roasted1 ounce0.1
Rice, white, enriched1 cup0.1
Tuna, fresh3 ounces0.9
Raisins, seedless½ cup0.1
Spinach, frozen, boiled½ cup0.1
Tofu, raw½ cup0.1

Health Implications    TOP

Populations at Risk for Vitamin B6 Deficiency

The following populations may be at risk for vitamin B6 deficiency and may require a supplement:

  • People who consume excessive amounts of alcohol
  • People with poor kidney function
  • People with autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, and ulcerative colitis

Vitamin B6, Homocysteine, and Heart Disease

Homocysteine is an amino acid normally found in the blood. Studies have shown that elevated blood levels of homocysteine can be a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Because vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid are required for the metabolism of homocysteine, it is thought that a deficiency of any of the 3 may increase the level of homocysteine in the blood. Studies have failed to show that taking these vitamins as supplements in people with normal levels offers protection from heart disease.

Morning Sickness    TOP

There is evidence that high levels of B6 can help alleviate the symptoms of morning sickness during pregnancy.

Areas of Research That Have Not Been Supported by Clinical Data    TOP

  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) —There has been much anecdotal evidence that vitamin B6 can help relieve the symptoms of PMS—depression, irritability, bloating, mastalgia. However, clinical trials have failed to support this idea.
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome—There is no evidence to support the idea that B6 can ease carpal tunnel syndrome.

Tips for Increasing Your Vitamin B6 Intake    TOP

To help increase your intake of vitamin B6:

  • Sprinkle kidney beans or garbanzo beans on a salad
  • Opt for a fortified breakfast cereal—one that is high in fiber—in the morning
  • Slice a banana into your oatmeal or cereal
  • If you take a vitamin supplement, make sure it contains vitamin B6

RESOURCES:

Eat Right—Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
http://www.eatright.org
American Society for Nutrition
http://www.nutrition.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Dietitians of Canada
http://www.dietitians.ca

References:

Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated October 5, 2015. Accessed March 17, 2016.
Pyridoxine. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated March 14, 2016. Accessed March 17, 2016.
Vitamin B6. EBSCO Natural and Alternative Treatments website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated December 15, 2015. Accessed March 17, 2016.
Vitamin B6. National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements website. Available at: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB6-HealthProfessional. Updated February 11, 2016. Accessed March 17, 2016.
Last reviewed March 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
Last Updated: 3/17/2016

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