CRDAMC Homepage | CRDAMC Library Phone #: (254) 288-8366 | CRDAMC Library Fax #: (254) 288-8368

Search Health Library

Diabetes Insipidus

Pronounced: diabetes -in-' sip-d-s

Definition

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition where water in the body is improperly removed from the circulatory system by the kidneys.

There are 2 forms of DI:

  • Central diabetes insipidus (central DI)
  • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI)

Causes    TOP

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) controls the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys. ADH is made in the hypothalamus of the brain. The pituitary gland, at the base of the brain, stores and releases ADH.

Central DI occurs when the hypothalamus does not make enough ADH.

NDI occurs when the kidneys do not respond to ADH.

Some diabetes insipidus is caused by genetic problems. Most others develop after an injury, illness, or exposure to a medication.

Pituitary Gland

Nucleus factsheet image
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Risk Factors    TOP

Factors that may increase your risk of DI include:

Symptoms    TOP

Symptoms may include:

  • Increased urination, especially during the night
  • Extreme thirst
  • Nighttime urination
  • Dehydration—fast heart rate, dry skin and mouth, fatigue, dizziness, confusion

Diagnosis    TOP

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam may be done.

Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:

  • Blood tests
  • Urine tests
  • Water deprivation test
  • Desmopressin challenge test

Images may be taken of your bodily structures, usually the urinary tract or brain. This can be done with ultrasound or an MRI scan.

Treatment    TOP

Your doctor will work with you to address the underlying cause.

Treatment may include:

  • For central DI—taking a synthetic form of ADH
  • For NDI
    • Drinking plenty of water
    • Treating any underlying cause
    • Following a low-sodium diet
    • Taking a diuretic

Prevention    TOP

There are no known ways to prevent diabetes insipidus. Talk to the doctor right away if you have excessive urination or thirst.

RESOURCES:

American Diabetes Association
http://www.diabetes.org
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Foundation
http://www.ndif.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Canadian Diabetes Association
http://www.diabetes.ca

References:

Central diabetes insipidus. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.... Updated June 7, 2017. Accessed August 24, 2017.
Diabetes insipidus. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/kidney-disease/diabetes-insipidus. Updated January 13, 2014. Accessed August 24, 2017.
Jain V. Ravindranath A. Diabetes insipidus in children. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Jan;29(1):39-45. Available at: https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jpem.2016.29.issue-1/jpem-2014-0518/jpem-2014-0518.xml. Accessed September 19, 2017.
Lu H. Diabetes insipidus. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;969:213-225.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.... Updated June 7, 2017. Accessed August 24, 2017.
Rivkees SA, Dunbar N, Wilson TA. The management of central diabetes insipidus in infancy: desmopressin, low renal solue load formula, thazide diuretics. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2007;20(4):459-469.
Toumba M, Stanhope R. Morbidity and mortality associated with desmopressin treatment. Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2006;19(3):197-201.
Last reviewed September 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael Woods, MD, FAAP
Last Updated: 8/24/2017

EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at healthlibrarysupport@ebsco.com. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.

Health Library: Editorial Policy | Privacy Policy | Terms and Conditions | Support
36000 Darnall Loop Fort Hood, Texas 76544-4752 | Phone: (254) 288-8000