Otitis externa is redness and swelling of the ear canal. The ear canal is the tube leading from the outer ear to the eardrum.
Otitis externa may be:
Some people develop malignant otitis externa. This is an infection of tissue and bone around the ear and skull base. If left untreated, it can be life-threatening.
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Otitis externa is caused by infection, irritation, or damage to the ear canal.
The acute type is more common in children. Risks for otitis externa are:
This condition may cause:
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam may be done. The doctor will look in the ear with a lighted device. An ear swab may be done to check for infection.
The goal of treatment is to ease symptoms and clear any infection.
Options may be:
The doctor may advise:
If the ear canal is very swollen, a small sponge may be inserted in it. It will absorb the drops. It is usually removed after 24 to 48 hours.
If treatments do not work, drainage may be removed from the ear canal. This is rarely needed.
Malignant otitis externa needs hospital care right away. Surgery may be needed if:
Dead tissue may also need to be removed.
The risk of this condition may be lowered by:
American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
Canadian Society of Otolaryngology
Otitis externa. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/otitis-externa . Accessed January 29, 2021.
Otitis externa (swimmer's ear). National Center for Emergency Medicine Informatics website. Available at: http://www.ncemi.org/cse/cse0302.htm. Accessed January 29, 2021.
Prentice P, et al. American Academy of Otolaryngology: head and neck surgery foundation clinical practice guideline on acute otitis externa 2014. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed. 2015 Aug;100(4):197.
Rosenfeld RM. Clinical practice guideline: acute otitis externa. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014 Feb;150(2):161-8.
Swimmer’s ear. American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery website. Available at: http://www.entnet.org/content/swimmers-ear. Accessed January 29, 2021.
Swimmer’s ear (otitis externa). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/swimming/rwi/illnesses/swimmers-ear.html. Accessed January 29, 2021.
Last reviewed September 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Shawna Grubb, RN Last Updated: 2/22/2021