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Sore Throat

(Pharyngitis; Tonsillopharyngitis; Throat Infection)

Definition

A sore throat is the general name for 2 common conditions:

  • Pharyngitis—swelling and inflammation of the pharynx (the back of the throat, including the back of the tongue)
  • Tonsillopharyngitis—swelling and inflammation of the pharynx and the tonsils (soft tissue that makes up part of the throat's immune defenses)

Sore Throat Due to Inflammation

Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Causes    TOP

Many things can cause a sore throat such as:

  • Viral infections such as theflu, herpangina, and the common cold
  • Bacterial infections such as strep throat
  • Infectious mononucleosis
  • Mucus from your sinuses that drains into your throat
  • Smoking
  • Breathing polluted air
  • Drinking alcoholic beverages
  • Seasonal or other allergies
  • Acid reflux from the stomach
  • Food debris collecting in small pockets in the tonsils
  • Certain immune or inflammatory disorders

Risk Factors    TOP

Sore throats are more common children, teens, or people aged 65 years and older. Other factors that may increase your chance of a sore throat include:

  • Exposure to someone with a sore throat or any other infection involving the throat or nose
  • Exposure to cigarette smoke, toxic fumes, industrial smoke, and other air pollutants
  • Having seasonal or other allergies
  • Having other conditions that affect your immune system, such as HIV infection or cancer

Symptoms    TOP

Along with the sore throat, you may have other symptoms such as:

  • Pain
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Runny or stuffy nose
  • Fever
  • Enlarged lymph nodes in your neck
  • Hoarse voice
  • Red or irritated-looking throat
  • Swollen tonsils
  • White patches on or near your tonsils
  • Cough
  • Difficulty breathing

When Should I Call My Doctor?

Call your doctor if you:

  • Experience a worsening of your sore throat or the symptom lasts longer than you or your doctor expect
  • Have difficulty swallowing or breathing
  • Have developed other symptoms, such as:
    • White patches on tonsils (may be a sign of strep throat)
    • Enlarged lymph nodes on your neck
    • Rash
    • Fever
    • Earache
    • Lightheadedness
    • Nausea or vomiting
    • Muscle or joint aches
    • Fatigue
    • Blood in saliva

The American Academy of Pediatrics suggests calling your child's doctor if your child has a sore throat that goes on for more than 1 day (no matter what other symptoms are present).

If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away.

Diagnosis    TOP

Your doctor will do a physical exam. This involves looking closely at your mouth, throat, nose, ears, and the lymph nodes in your neck.

  • This physical exam may include:
    • Using a small instrument to look inside the nose, ears, and mouth
    • Gently touching the lymph nodes (glands) in your neck to check for swelling
    • Taking your temperature
  • The doctor will ask questions about:
    • Your family and medical history
    • Recent exposure to someone with strep throat or any other infection of the throat, nose, or ears
  • Other tests include:
    • Rapid strep test or throat culture—using a cotton swab to touch the back of the throat to check for strep throat
    • Blood tests—to identify some conditions that may be causing the sore throat
    • Mono spot test—if mononucleosis is suspected

Treatment    TOP

Treatment depends on the cause of the sore throat. Options may include:

Medications

  • Pain relievers or fever reducers
    • Note: Aspirin is not recommended for children with a current or recent viral infection. Check with your doctor before giving your child aspirin.
  • Antibiotics for a sore throat caused by a bacterial infection
  • Throat lozenges
  • Decongestants and antihistamines to relieve nasal congestion and runny nose
  • Numbing throat spray for pain control in older children and adults, although the relief is very short-lived
  • Corticosteroids if there is trouble breathing

Home Care

Self-care steps you can do at home:

  • Get plenty of rest
  • Drink plenty of fluids
  • Try warm liquids (tea or broth), or cool liquids
  • Gargle with warm saline several times a day
  • Avoid irritants that might affect your throat, such as tobacco smoke and cold air
  • Avoid drinking alcohol

Prevention    TOP

To help reduce your chances of a sore throat:

  • Wash your hands frequently. Do this especially after blowing your nose or after caring for a child with a sore throat.
  • If someone in your home has a sore throat, keep their eating utensils and drinking glasses separate from those of other family members. Wash these objects in hot, soapy water.
  • If a toddler with a sore throat has been sucking on toys, wash the toys in soap and water.
  • Immediately get rid of used tissues, and then wash your hands.
  • If you have hay fever or another respiratory allergy, see your doctor. Avoid the substance that causes your allergy.

RESOURCES:

Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics
https://www.healthychildren.org
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
https://www.niaid.nih.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Canadian Society of Otolaryngology
http://www.entcanada.org

References:

Choby BA. Diagnosis and treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis. Am Fam Physician. 2009;79(5):383-390.
Pharyngitis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114913/Pharyngitis. Updated August 25, 2016. Accessed September 27, 2017.
Sore throat. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: https://familydoctor.org/condition/sore-throat. Updated May 2014. Accessed September 27, 2017.
Sore throat. Patient website. Available at: https://patient.info/health/sore-throat-leaflet. Accessed October 19, 2016. Accessed September 27, 2017
The difference between a sore throat, strep and tonsillitis. Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics website. Available at: https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/ear-nose-throat/Pages/The-Difference-Between-a-Sore-Throat-Strep-and-Tonsillitis.aspx. Updated February 26, 2016. Accessed September 27, 2017.
Throat problems. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: https://familydoctor.org/symptom/throat-problems. Accessed September 27, 2017.
Vincent MT, Celestin N, Hussain AN. Pharyngitis. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69(6):1465-1470.
11/10/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed...: Hayward G, Thompson M, Heneghan C, Perera R, Del Mar C, Glasziou P. Corticosteroids for pain relief in sore throat: Systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2009;339:b2976.
Last reviewed September 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Marcie L. Sidman, MD
Last Updated: 9/30/2014

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