Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine. Instead of a straight line from the neck to the buttocks, the spine has a C- or S-shape.
Adult scoliosis is a spinal curvature that exists or develops after someone is done growing (around 18 years old). Adult scoliosis may be a progression of childhood scoliosis or a scoliosis that develops later in life.
Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form of scoliosis that continues into adulthood. Idiopathic means there is no clear cause of the scoliosis. Idiopathic scoliosis that is not diagnosed or treated in childhood can continue into adulthood. The scoliosis can also cause premature aging of the spine, which worsens the curvature. This is more likely with curves greater than 30 degrees.
Scoliosis that develops in adulthood may occur as the result of wear and tear injuries of the spine, also known as degenerative diseases.
The most common symptom is the appearance of asymmetry in the shoulders or hips. More severe curves may cause leaning forward or to 1 side in order to stand upright.
Other symptoms will depend on where the abnormal curvature is in the spine and the severity of the curves. Some may not have any symptoms. Progression of scoliosis or abnormal wear and tear on spine due to scoliosis may cause:
Back pain or stiffness
Numbness, weakness, or cramping in areas or limbs around the curvature
Changes in bowel or bladder habits—if the curvature is in low back
There are no current guidelines for preventing scoliosis in adults. If you are at high risk for other spinal conditions, such as osteoporosis, talk to your doctor about preventive measures you can take.