Leukemia is a cancer of the blood cells. In cancer, cells become abnormal and grow out of control. As the number of abnormal blood cells increase, the healthy blood cells are outnumbered. There are three main types of blood cells. Each has a distinct job:
White blood cells (WBC), also called lymphocytes, are most often involved in leukemia. WBCs are components of the immune system.
Red blood cells (RBC) carry oxygen throughout the body.
Platelets help the blood clot at injury sites.
Leukemia cells cannot do the job of normal blood cells. This causes many of the
symptoms of leukemia. The disease starts in the bone marrow where blood cells are made. The most common types of leukemia are:
Cancer occurs when cells in the body divide without control or order. Normally, cells divide in a regulated manner. If cells keep dividing uncontrollably when new cells are not needed, a mass of tissue forms, called a growth or tumor. The term cancer refers to malignant growths. These growths can invade nearby tissues. Cancer that has invaded nearby tissues can then spread to other parts of the body.
It is not clear exactly what causes these problems in the cells, but it is probably a combination of genetics and environment.
The goal for acute leukemia is to destroy all signs of the disease and return the blood and bone marrow to normal. Chronic leukemia is rarely curable. Treatment focuses on slowing disease progression.
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Options include the following:
mesylate—used to treat myeloid leukemia by reducing the number of cancer cells in the blood and bone marrow
Nilotinib—targeted therapy similar to imatinib
Dasatinib—targeted therapy similar to imatinib (if leukemia cells become resistant to imatinib)
These drugs can cause infertility and early
menopause. Talk to your doctor about your fertility preservation options before you start treatment.
Your doctor may prescribe medications to stimulate the production of healthy blood cells.
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. It may be given in many forms including pill, injection, and through an IV. The drugs enter the bloodstream and travel through the body killing mostly cancer cells. Some healthy cells are killed as well. The specific combination of drugs will depend on the type of leukemia, your age, and condition.
—Healthy blood cells from a donor are given through an IV. This may be done if the leukemia is causing shortness of breath, fatigue, or severe bleeding.
Bone marrow transplant
—Stem cells from a donor’s healthy bone marrow are injected in you. Stem cells can make all types of blood cells. Once injected into your bloodstream, the stem cells should make healthy blood cells.
—The spleen may need to be removed if it becomes congested with leukemia cells or causes complications.
The therapy uses medications or substances made by the body to improve your body’s defense against cancer. This type of treatment is still fairly new and under investigation. Talk with you doctor about whether this treatment is an option for you and about clinical trials in your area.