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Upper Gastrointestinal Series
(Upper GI Series; Barium Swallow; Barium Meal)
This is a series of x-rays of the esophagus, stomach, and the first part of the small intestine called the duodenum. Together, the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum are called the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, or upper digestive system. The x-rays are taken during and after drinking contrast material called barium. The barium solution is a thick, white, chalky, milkshake-like liquid. It coats the inside lining of your GI tract. This makes the GI tract show up better on the x-ray.
Reasons for Test TOP
An upper GI series may be done if you have:
An upper GI series can help detect:
Possible Complications TOP
Some people may have an allergic reaction to the barium or have difficulty keeping it down.
What to Expect TOP
Prior to Test
Description of Test
You will remove all jewelry and wear a hospital gown. You will drink the barium solution. As you drink the barium, the radiologist will take x-rays of your chest and abdomen. The doctor may also give you bits of food to eat with barium on them. You may have to change positions frequently during the test.
If your doctor wants to look at more of your intestines, a small bowel follow-through may be done. This means that x-ray pictures are taken every 15-30 minutes while the barium travels further down the intestines.
After the Test TOP
You may eat and drink as usual. Drink plenty of fluid. The barium will slowly pass through your system on its own.
You may have some white-colored stool or constipation after the test.
How Long Will It Take? TOP
An upper GI series can take 30 minutes-2 hours. A small bowel follow-through can take 1-4 hours.
Will It Hurt? TOP
A normal upper GI series will show a functioning, healthy digestive tract. Your doctor will perform further tests or make a treatment plan based on the findings.
Call Your Doctor TOP
Call your doctor if any of these occur:
American Gastroenterological Association
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Canadian Association of Gastroenterology
Radiology for Patients
Patient prep & instruction manual. Scheduled test: upper GI series. Penn Medicine website. Available at:
Upper GI series. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diagnostic-tests/upper-gi-series. Updated August 2016. Accessed April 4, 2018.
X-ray (radiography)—upper GI tract. Radiology Info—Radiological Society of America website. Available at: https://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=uppergi. Updated April 1, 2017. Accessed April 4, 2018.
Last reviewed March 2018 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
Daus Mahnke, MD
2545 Park Plaza
Telephone: (615) 344-6060
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