A colon polypectomy is the removal of
from the inside lining of the colon, also called the large intestine. A polyp is a mass of tissue. Some types of polyps can develop into cancer. Most polyps can be removed during a
Pictures of your colon may need to be taken. This can be done with
An examination of your intestine may need to be done. This can be done with a diagnostic
Your colon must be completely cleaned before the procedure. Any stool left in the intestine will block the view. This preparation may start several days before the procedure. Follow your doctor's instructions, which may include any of the following cleansing methods:
Enemas—fluid introduced into the rectum to stimulate a bowel movement
Laxatives—medications that cause you to have soft bowel movements
A clear-liquid diet
Oral cathartic medications—a fluid you drink to help stimulate a bowel movement
Leading up to your procedure:
Talk to your doctor about your medications. You may be asked to stop taking some medications up to one week before the procedure.
The night before, eat a light meal. Do not eat or drink anything after midnight.
Wear comfortable clothing.
If you have diabetes, ask your doctor if you need to adjust your insulin dose.
Arrange for a ride home after the procedure.
You will receive a sedative. This will help you relax. You will be drowsy but awake.
You will be asked to lie on your side or on your back. A scope, a long flexible tube with a camera on the end, will be inserted through the anus. It will be slowly pushed through the rectum to the colon. The scope will also add air to open the colon.
Using the scope, the doctor will locate the polyp. The polyp will be snipped off with a wire snare from the scope. In some cases, the polyp may be destroyed with an electric current. The electric current is also used to close the wound and stop bleeding. The polyps will then be removed for lab testing. When the doctor is finished, the scope will be slowly removed.
For larger polyps, a
laparoscopic surgical procedure
may be needed. Special surgical tools will be inserted through small incisions in the abdomen. The tools will be used to locate and remove the polyp.
The special cleaning solution, laxatives, and/or enemas often cause discomfort. During and following the procedure, there is little or no pain. You may feel pressure, bloating, and/or cramping because of the air passed into the colon. This discomfort will go away with the passing of gas. You may be given pain medication. If not, you can take over-the-counter pain relievers for discomfort.
Consolo P, Luigiano C, Strangio G, et al. Efficacy, risk factors, and complications of endoscopic polypectomy: ten-year experience at a single center.
World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14(15): 2354-2369.
Treatment for colon polyps. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/colon-polyps/treatment. Updated November 2014. Accessed October 3, 2017.