Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin. Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's liver and fatty tissues. Vitamin D acts as both a vitamin and a hormone.
Vitamin D is found in some foods, but the main sources are vitamin D-fortified milk and sunlight. The ultraviolet rays of the sun react with cholesterol present in the skin and create previtamin D3. This compound goes through a series of reactions in the kidneys and the liver, and the final product is vitamin D.
Plays a crucial role in the growth and maintenance of strong, healthy bones
Maintains normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus
In children with low vitamin D levels, supplementation can improve bone mineral density. While the evidence does not give a clear answer, it has also been suggested that vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of
osteoporosis, high blood pressure, and some forms of cancer.
Vitamin D has also been found to improve pain symptoms in patients with low vitamin D levels.
Recommended Dietary Allowance or Adequate Intake (IU/Day)
Pregnant or nursing women
IU: international units
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends supplementation for all children who do not receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily. Breastfed babies may require a supplement within the first few days of life. Bottle-fed babies who do not consume enough vitamin-D fortified formula may also need the supplement, as well as any child who does not get plenty of vitamin D in their diet.
As seen above, requirements for pregnant women are the same as for healthy adults, though some believe that pregnant mothers should take more vitamin D than recommended. Furthermore, some experts believe that people at highest risk for vitamin D deficiency, such as older adults or those with limited sun exposure during the winter months, should take 1,000 IU or more daily. However, since the risk of vitamin D toxicity increases with higher doses, such recommendations ought to be discussed individually with your doctor.
Since vitamin D is stored in the body and not excreted in the urine like most water-soluble vitamins, it is possible for it to accumulate and reach toxic levels. Here are safe upper level intakes for vitamin D:
Fortified foods provide the most vitamin D. Examples of foods that may be fortified with vitamin D are:
There are not many foods that are natural sources of vitamin D. Of those foods that have vitamin D naturally are (most to least):
Fatty fish, such as salmon, tuna, and mackerel
A relatively small amount of sun exposure can provide adequate vitamin D. In a study of naval personnel in submarines, 6 days of sun exposure proved capable of supplying enough vitamin D for 49 sunless days. However, the actual synthesis of vitamin D through sunlight is affected by season, latitude, time of day, cloud cover, smog, use of sunblock, and skin pigmentation.
The following populations may be at risk for vitamin D deficiency and may require a supplement:
Breastfed babies—Human milk does not have enough vitamin D. Breastfed babies should receive a 400 IU vitamin supplement each day to make up for this.
Older adults—Studies suggest that adults over age 65 have less ability to synthesize vitamin D through sunlight exposure than adults aged 20-30. They are also likely to spend less time out in the sun.
Locales with limited sun exposure—People who live above latitudes of approximately 40°N and below latitudes of approximately 40°S are at risk for deficiency during most of the winter months.
People with dark skin—Those with darker skin are less able to make vitamin D from the sun.
People who are
—Body fat can bind to some vitamin D preventing it from getting into the blood where it can be used by the body.
People with a reduced ability to absorb dietary fat—Because vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, fat is required for its absorption from foods. Some conditions that can cause fat malabsorption include
celiac disease, pancreatic enzyme deficiency, and liver disease.
Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Wong JB, Giovannucci E, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.