Cancer is when cells in the body split without control or order. These cells go on to form a growth or tumor. The term cancer refers to harmful growths. These growths attack nearby tissues. They also spread to other parts of the body. It's not clear exactly what causes these problems. It’s likely a mix of genes and the environment.
—a sample of bladder tissue is looked at under a microscope
The exam and your test results will help find out the stage of cancer you have. Staging guides your treatment. Bladder cancer is staged from 0-4. Stage 0 is a very localized cancer. Stage 4 is a spread to other parts of the body.
Partial—Part of the bladder and nearby healthy tissue are removed.
Radical—The entire bladder and nearby lymph nodes are removed.
In men—The prostate may be taken out.
In women—The uterus, ovaries, part of the vagina, and the fallopian tubes may be taken out.
A path for the urine
to be passed from the body may be made through the belly wall. It depends on how extensive the surgery was. This will allow urine to be stored and passed out of the body in a different manner.
Radiation therapy is the use of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. It may be:
External—radiation is aimed at the bladder from a source outside the body
Internal—radioactive materials placed into bladder in or near the cancer cells
Biologic therapy uses the body’s immune system to fight cancer. Substances are made by the body or in a lab. They’re placed right into the bladder to boost, direct, or restore the body’s defenses. This type is used only for shallow, low grade cancer that was taken out.
Bladder cancer. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary-disorders/genitourinary-cancer/bladder-cancer. Updated October 2017. Accessed July 26, 2018.
Bladder cancer. Urology Care Foundation website. Available at: ...(Click grey area to select URL) Accessed July 23, 2018.
General information about bladder cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at ...(Click grey area to select URL) Updated July 7, 2016. Accessed July 23, 2018.