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Dehydration

 

Definition

Dehydration results from excessive loss of fluids from the body or not enough fluid replacement.

 

Causes    TOP

To work properly, the body requires a certain amount of water and other elements, called electrolytes. Drinking and eating help to replace fluids and electrolytes that have been lost through the body's functions. Fluids are normally lost through sweat, urine, bowel movements, and breathing. If a lot of fluids are lost and not replaced, dehydration can occur.

 

Risk Factors    TOP

Dehydration is more common in children younger than 2 years and people aged 65 years or older, especially those with chronic illness.

Other factors that may increase the chances of dehydration:

  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • High fever
  • Exposure to the heat and sun
  • Excessive exercise, including athletic competitions
  • Living in a nursing home or long-term care facility
  • Medications, including diuretics and laxatives
  • Reduced fluid intake due to certain conditions such as movement problems, mental health or memory problems, and decreased ability to perceive thirst
  • Fluid imbalance caused by certain conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, burns, and infection
 

Symptoms    TOP

Symptoms vary depending on the degree of dehydration. Symptoms may include:

  • Dry mouth
  • Limited tear production
  • Thirst
  • Weakness
  • Decreased urination
  • Concentrated urine—darker color, stronger odor
  • Wrinkled skin or dry skin
  • Parched, cracked lips
  • Lightheadedness
  • Drowsiness
  • Nausea
  • Irritability
  • Confusion
  • Fever
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Fast breathing
  • Weight loss
  • In infants, sunken soft spot in the skull or no wet diapers for 3 or more hours

Soft Spot in Infant Skull

Infant Soft Spot

Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Dehydration can be extremely serious and life threatening. It may require immediate medical care.

 

Diagnosis    TOP

The doctor will ask about symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.

The doctor will test bodily fluids. This can be done with:

  • Urine tests
  • Blood tests
 

Treatment    TOP

Therapy aims to rehydrate the body, replace lost electrolytes, and prevent complications. If there is an underlying condition, the doctor will treat that as well.

Treatment may include:

Fluid Replacement

If there is minimal or moderate dehydration, the doctor may have fluids replaced fluids by mouth. The following may be needed:

  • Drink small amounts of oral rehydration solution throughout the day. Continue to drink the oral rehydration solution.
  • Adults may need additional plain water or salty liquids like broth, depending on their sodium level. Avoid beverages with alcohol and caffeine, carbonated soft drinks, fruit juices, and gelatin.
  • Increase the amount of liquid as tolerated.

IV fluids will be given to rapidly replace fluids in cases of severe dehydration.

Medication

The doctor may recommend the following medications:

  • Antiemetics to control nausea and vomiting
  • Antidiarrheal drugs for severe diarrhea or abdominal cramping
  • Antibiotics for severe diarrhea caused by a certain bacterial infections
 

Prevention    TOP

To help reduce the chances of dehyration:

  • Drink plenty of non-caffeinated fluids, even if you are busy or sick.
  • Drink fluids regularly while exercising or when outdoors on a hot day. Stop frequently for fluid breaks.
RESOURCES:

Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
https://www.familydoctor.org

Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics
https://www.healthychildren.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

About Kids Health—The Hospital for Sick Children
http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca

Health Canada
https://www.canada.ca

REFERENCES:

Dehydration and hypovolemia in adults. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T904582/Dehydration-and-hypovolemia-in-adults . Updated October 5, 2015. Accessed March 13, 2018.

Dehydration and hypovolemia in infants and children. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T904583/Dehydration-and-hypovolemia-in-infants-and-children . Updated May 9, 2016. Accessed March 13, 2018.

Rehydration therapy in children. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T900144/Rehydration-therapy-in-children . Updated January 8, 2018. Accessed March 13, 2018.



Last reviewed March 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Marcie L. Sidman, MD
Last Updated: 3/13/2018

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