Diabetes is a higher level of glucose in the blood than is normal. Glucose travels through the body in the blood. A hormone called insulin then helps glucose move from the blood to the cells. Once glucose is in the cells it can be used for energy. A problem making or using insulin means glucose cannot move into cells. Insulin also helps glucose to move into the liver for storage if there is too much to use. Without enough insulin, glucose will build up in the blood.
In type 1 diabetes, the body does not make insulin. This will lead to the build up of glucose in the blood, also called hyperglycemia. At the same time, cells are not getting glucose they need to function well. Over a long period of time high blood glucose levels can also damage vital organs. The blood vessels, heart, kidneys, eyes, and nerves are most commonly affected organs.
Type 1 diabetes is often found during childhood and young adulthood.
Our immune system keeps us well by fighting off and destroying viruses and bacteria. Unfortunately, sometimes the immune system attacks healthy tissue. Most type 1 diabetes develop because the immune system attacks and destroys the cells that make insulin. These cells are in the pancreas.
It is not yet clear why the immune system attacks these cells. It is believed that some people have genes that make them prone to getting diabetes. For these people, certain triggers in the environment may make the immune system attack the pancreas. The triggers are not known but may be certain viruses, foods, or chemicals.
Type 1 diabetes may also develop as a complication of other medical conditions. It may develop in:
Without insulin, the body will need to find new forms of energy. This will cause an imbalance in the body called
ketoacidosis. It is a severe state that can lead to coma or death. Ketoacidosis may cause:
Diabetes treatment goal is to maintain blood sugar at levels as close to normal as possible. Regular medical care is important for preventing or delaying complications.
While diabetes makes blood glucose levels too high, treatment can make blood glucose levels go too low. This is called hypoglycemia. It can cause confusion, shakiness, anxiety, heart palpitations and more. If the levels fall too low it can cause seizures and loss of consciousness.
Medication and diet will be adjusted to prevent hyperglycemia and keep the risk of hypoglycemia low.
Insulin injections replace the insulin that is missing. The amount given is based on individual need and a blood glucose test that is taken before and after meals and at bedtime. Insulin shots will be needed 2 or more times daily. There is one short-acting inhaled insulin which may be available for select persons.
An insulin pump can automatically deliver small amounts of insulin through the day.
Insulin may be available in inhaled forms.
Amylin is made in the pancreas along with insulin. In people with type 1 diabetes, this hormone, like insulin, is missing. The missing amylin may be responsible for the blood glucose rise after a meal in
diabetes. The drug pramlintide may be used in adults when insulin therapy is not enough to control blood sugar.
This is a procedure that is still being investigated. It involves
transplanting islet cells
from a donor to a person with type 1 diabetes. After the transplant, these new cells are able to produce insulin. In some cases, people who receive these transplants may no longer need insulin injections.
This device is still being studied and developed. It is a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). This system can automatically checks glucose levels through the day. Insulin is then delivered as needed through the day and night. The monitoring system will help keep blood sugar levels within the normal range without daily testing or injections.
can undermine recovery and increase the risk of other complications. Feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities that last for at least 2 weeks should prompt a call to the doctor. Depression is treatable. Counseling can help better manage depression and diabetes.
Type 1 Diabetes. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
website. Available at:
https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/what-is-diabetes/type-1-diabetes. Updated July 2017. Accessed August 25, 2017.
Diabetes. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: ...(Click grey area to select URL) Updated July 23, 2017. Accessed August 25, 2017.
9/11/2014 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance
: Tovote KA, Fleer J, et al. Individual mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and cognitive behavior therapy for treating depressive symptoms in patients with diabetes: results of a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(9):2427-2434.