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Sunburn

 

Definition

Sunburn is the term for red, sometimes swollen and painful skin. Sunburn can vary from mild to severe. The extent depends on your skin type and the amount of exposure to the sun. Sunburn is a serious risk factor for skin cancer and sun damage.

First Degree (Superficial) Burn

Nucleus factsheet image

Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

 

Causes    TOP

Sunburn is caused by overexposure to UV rays from the sun.

 

Risk Factors    TOP

Factors that may increase the chances of sunburn:

  • Being exposed to the sun
  • Having light skin color
  • Taking certain medications that increase your sensitivity to the sun such as, antibiotics, diuretics, and birth control pills
  • Living in certain areas, such as southern US
 

Symptoms    TOP

The symptoms of sunburn vary from person to person. You may not notice redness of the skin for several hours after the burn has begun. Peak redness will take 12-24 hours.

Symptoms can include:

  • Redness
  • Swelling
  • Warmth
  • Pain
  • Blisters
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Weakness

When to Call Your Doctor

A mild sunburn does not often require a visit to the doctor.

See your doctor if you have a severe burn or if your burn symptoms are not improving after a few days.

Call if you have:

  • Large areas of blistering
  • Fever
  • Extreme pain
  • Headache or confusion
  • Lightheadedness or vision changes
  • Severe swelling
  • Signs of infection such as:
    • Open blisters that are draining pus
    • Areas of redness or red streaks spreading or moving away from open blisters
 

Diagnosis    TOP

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You may be referred to a dermatologist for treatment if the sunburn is very severe.

 

Treatment    TOP

Treatment depends on the severity of the sunburn. The first and most important step in treatment involves getting out of the sun at the first sign of redness or tingling. Stay out of the sun until the skin is fully healed. This may take several weeks.

In addition:

  • Apply a cool compress to soothe raw, hot skin.
  • Take over-the-counter pain reliever if advised by your doctor.
  • Use prescription or over-the-counter topical medications such as silver-based agents or aloe vera if advised by your doctor.
  • Take oral or topical corticosteroids if advised by your doctor. These may shorten the course of pain and inflammation. Topical steroids may not relieve skin redness.
  • Take prescription antibiotics if an infection develops.
  • Be extra careful to protect skin after it peels. The skin is very sensitive after peeling.
 

Prevention    TOP

To prevent sunburn, you must shield your skin from the sun's rays.

  • Avoid strong, direct sunlight.
  • Plan outdoor activities early or late in the day to avoid peak sunlight hours between 10:00 am and 4:00 pm.
  • Choose a broad spectrum sunscreen or sunblock with a sun protection factor (SPF) of at least 30. It should filter out both ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) rays.
  • Apply sunscreen liberally, thoroughly, and frequently to all exposed skin. Do not forget your lips, ears, or feet.
  • Wear protective, tightly woven clothing or special sunblock clothes, as well as a broad-rimmed hat and sunglasses.

Keep in mind that water is not a good filter. You can become sunburned while swimming or snorkeling. You can also become sunburned during the winter, and on cloudy or foggy days.

RESOURCES:

American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.aad.org

Skin Cancer Foundation
https://www.skincancer.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Canadian Dermatology Association
https://dermatology.ca

Health Canada
https://www.canada.ca

REFERENCES:

Faurschou A, Wulf HC. Topical corticosteroids in the treatment of acute sunburn: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Arch Dermatol. 2008;144(5):620-624.

Han A, Maibach HI. Management of acute sunburn. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2004;5(1):39-47.

Minor burns. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T901428/Minor-burns . Updated March 17, 2017. Accessed March 23, 2018.

Oliveria SA, Saraiya M, Geller AC, Heneghan MK, Jorgensen C. Sun exposure and risk of melanoma. Arch Dis Child. 2006;91(2):131-138.

Sunscreen FAQs. American Academy of Dermatology website. Available at: https://www.aad.org/media/stats/prevention-and-care/sunscreen-faqs. Accessed March 23, 2018.



Last reviewed March 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Marcin Chwistek, MD
Last Updated: 8/5/2015

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