Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a problem with the trigeminal nerve. The nerve senses touch, pain, pressure, and temperature. It also helps make saliva and tears. TN causes severe, shooting pain along one side of the face.
The main symptom is searing pain on one side of the face. The pain may be felt inside the mouth or in the lips, cheek, chin, nostril, ear, or near the eye. Rarely, it may happen in the eye or forehead. Twitching or wincing may also happen.
The pain is sudden, severe, and stabbing. Even though the pain lasts less than 2 minutes, it can reoccur hundreds of times a day. Attacks can become totally disabling. They may seem to happen without notice or be triggered by temperature, washing, shaving, touching, or tickling the face. There may not be symptoms between attacks, except perhaps a dull ache.
Pain may come and go for days, weeks, months, or years. It may stop for months or years between attacks. Over time, the attacks may become more frequent and more severe.
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