(Herniation of Nucleus Pulposus [HNP]; Prolapsed Disc; Ruptured Disc; Slipped Disc)
by Cynthia M. Johnson, MA
A herniated disc is a bulging of one of the small, round discs between the bones of the spine. A disc that bulges from its proper place puts pressure on spinal nerves. It can cause pain and weakness in limbs. Problems are more common in the lower spine.
Common causes are:
This problem is more common in older adults. Other things that may raise the risk are:
The main symptom is pain that may:
Other problems may be:
The doctor will ask about symptoms and past health. A physical exam will be done. It will focus on the spine. Images may be taken of the spine. This can be done with:
Most people start to feel better in a few days or weeks. Staying active may be better than full rest. The goal of treatment is to manage symptoms. Choices are:
People who are not helped by these methods may need surgery. Choices are:
Exercise and improved strength may help some prevent herniated discs.
North American Spine Society
Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Canadian Orthopaedic Association
Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation
Deyo RA, Mirza SK. CLINICAL PRACTICE. Herniated Lumbar Intervertebral Disk. N Engl J Med. 2016 May 5;374(18):1763-1772.
Herniated disk in the lower back. Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at: https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases--conditions/herniated-disk-in-the-lower-back. Accessed February 17, 2021.
Lumbar disk herniation. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/lumbar-disk-herniation. Accessed February 17, 2021.
Last reviewed February 2021 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Warren A. Bodine, DO, CAQSM
Last Updated: 2/17/2021
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.