Dermatomyositis is an inflammatory disease which causes swelling and redness of muscle and skin.
The exact cause of dermatomyositis is not known. It may be an autoimmune disorder. The immune system identifies and attacks viruses and harmful bacteria in your body. An autoimmune disorder means the immune system begins to attack normal, healthy tissue.
An infection may trigger dermatomyositis, such as Coxsackie B virus,
group A streptococcus, or echovirus.
Your chance of developing dermatomyositis is higher if you have an autoimmune disorder such as:
There is no cure for dermatomyositis. Treatment is focused on managing the symptoms. Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include the following:
You may be referred to a physical therapist. The therapist will help improve or prevent the loss of muscle strength and function. It may include:
Strength and flexibility exercises
Guidelines for a general exercise program
Tips to modify day to day activities if muscle weakness is affecting them
Corticosteroids can suppress your immune system. This will decrease inflammation in the muscle. Steroid medication can also be used on the skin to relieve skin symptoms. Corticosteroids can cause problems, like lower bone density. They can also increase infections. To lower these effects, you will be given the lowest dose needed to control your symptoms. You may also be asked to take supplements like calcium and vitamin D to improve your bone strength.
There are other medication options that can help to suppress the immune system. They may be used with or instead of the corticosteroids.
Intravenous Immune Globulin
Immune globulin has healthy antibodies from several donors. These antibodies can block the unhealthy antibodies associated with dermatomyositis. It is given through an IV.
The infusion needs to be repeated every few weeks.
Regular exercise can help you develop and maintain muscle strength. Modify the program as needed to prevent irritating your condition. Check with your doctor and physical therapist for exercise guidelines. Rest when needed.
Your skin may also be more sensitive to the sun. Use sunscreen or cover your skin with clothes or a hat.
There are no known ways to prevent dermatomyositis.
Chung L, Genovese MC, et al. A pilot trial of rituximab in the treatment of patients with dermatomyositis. Arch Dermatol. 2007;143:763-767.
Dermatomyositis. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/dermatomyositis/dermatomyositis.htm. Updated July 27, 2015. Accessed May 5, 2016.
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