The exact cause of mood disorders is not known but it is probably a combination of factors.
An imbalance of chemicals in the brain or structural changes can lead to mood disorders. These changes may be present at birth or a genetic defect that runs in families. Stressful life changes or illness may also be associated with the development of mental illness.
Mood disorders are more common in women but can occur in men as well.
Factors that may increase your risk of mood disorders include:
A family history of mood disorder
Previous episode of depression
Stressful life changes
Certain drugs or medicines
Symptoms can vary but may include:
Persistent feelings of sadness, anxiety, or emptiness
Feeling guilty, worthless, or helpless
Restlessness or irritability
Trouble sleeping, waking up too early, or oversleeping
Loss of interest in hobbies and activities
Trouble concentrating, remembering, or making decisions
Loss of interest in sex
Eating more or less than usual
Weight gain or weight loss
Thoughts of death or suicide with or without suicide attempts
There may also be physical symptoms that cannot be medically explained and do not respond well to treatments.
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. The doctor will ask questions about family and personal history of depression and current behaviors.
Specific mental health questionnaires may be done. This will help the doctor get detailed information about your speech, thoughts, memory, and mood.
The symptoms can be caused by a number of conditions or lifestyle changes. Your doctor may rule out other conditions before making a mood disorder diagnosis. It may take some time to make a diagnosis.
Treatment may involve the use of medicine and/or psychotherapy. Severe mood disorder may require hospital care, especially if someone is at risk of hurting themselves or others.
The medicine used to treat mood disorder depends on the specific mood disorder being treated. Medicines may include antidepressants or mood stabilizers and may be used in combinations. It may take some time to find the best combination and dosage for each individual.
There are various types of psychotherapy for mood disorders. Options include cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal therapy, psychodynamic therapy, or a combination of these. Therapy is designed to help cope with difficulties in relationships, change negative thinking and behavior patterns, and resolve difficult feelings.
Lifestyle changes can not cure mood disorders but can help overall health and wellness. Steps include:
Eating a well-balanced diet
Regular exercise program—to relieve some symptoms of mood disorder and overall stress level.
Limiting habits that can make symptoms worse such as
Treatments for Severe Symptoms
Some symptoms may not respond to traditional treatment. If multiple attempts at medication therapy and
do not work as expected the following may be options:
Electroconvulsive therapy—Use of an electric stimulus to the brain to help reset damaged processes. May be used for severe or life-threatening mood disorder.
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS)—Pacemaker-like device that stimulates the vagus nerve in the neck. It may help alter signals to the brain.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)—The application of low-frequency magnetic pulses to the brain. The change in electrical field stimulates nerves.
There are no current guidelines to prevent mood disorders.
About mood disorders. Depression and Bipolar Alliance website. Available at: http://www.dbsalliance.org/site/PageServer?pagename=education_mood_disorders. Accessed October 3, 2017.
Mood disorders. Mental Health America website. Available at: http://www.mentalhealthamerica.net/conditions/mood-disorders. Accessed October 3, 2017.
Overview of mood disorders. Johns Hopkins Medicine website. Available at: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/mental_health_disorders/overview_of_mood_disorders_85,P00759. Accessed October 3, 2017.
Last reviewed September 2018 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
Adrian Preda, MD
Last Updated: 04/29/2020
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