Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is when the amniotic sac breaks before 37 weeks of pregnancy and labor has not started within 1 hour. The sac holds amniotic fluid and the growing baby. In PPROM, the fluid in the sac leaks or gushes out of the birth canal. This is also known as your water breaking.
The main symptom of PPROM is fluid leaking from the birth canal. You may have a sudden gush or a slow trickle. It can be hard to tell a slow amniotic trickle apart from urine. Your doctor can do tests to find out.
PPROM raises the risk of infection. You may also have:
A fever above 100.4°F (38°C)
If a large amount of fluid is leaking from the birth canal, PPROM is likely.
You may also have these tests:
Nitrazine paper test—the doctor puts a small amount of fluid on a piece of paper to see if it is amniotic fluid
Microscopic exam of the fluid
may be done to see how much fluid you have.
Treatment depends on when it happens in the pregnancy.
The doctor will:
Watch the baby’s heart rate
Start labor with medicines
Possibly give antibiotics
The doctor will treat you with antibiotics and steroids. The doctor may try to put off delivery until 33 weeks of pregnancy.
Less than 24 Weeks
The doctor may admit you to the hospital for bed rest and to monitor you and your baby. 24 weeks is about the youngest a baby can be born. The doctor will talk to you about the risks and benefits of your options.
ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins-Obstetrics. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 160: premature rupture of membranes. Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Jan;127(1):192-194.
Jeffcoat MK, Hauth JC, Geurs NC, et al. Periodontal disease and premature birth: Results of a pilot intervention. J Periodontology. 2003;74(8);1214.
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