A closed head injury is
to the head that does not cause a break in the skull. The brain and soft tissue can be damaged by violent movement. This can lead to bleeding and swelling inside the head.
This problem is caused by a blow to the head or severe jerking motions of the head, neck, or body. Common causes are:
Accidents, such as motor vehicle, work- and sports-related accidents
A person may have problems right away or in the days and weeks after the trauma. Problems may be:
Nausea and vomiting
Feeling very sleepy
Weakness or numbness in arms or legs
Problems with memory or focus
Double or blurry eyesight
Changes in mood or behavior
Loss of alertness
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. You will be asked how the injury happened. If you cannot speak, others may answer questions for you.
Images may be taken of the brain. This can be done with a CT scan.
Brain function may be tested. This can be done with neuropsychological tests.
Treatment will depend on how severe the injury is. The goal of treatment is to give the brain time heal and to avoid lasting problems. Choices are:
Mental and physical rest will be needed to give the brain time to heal. This includes limiting mental tasks like work or school. Problems may get worse when a person returns to normal activity too soon. It can also slow healing.
It will take longer to return to a sport or other physical activity. Having a second head injury before the brain has fully healed can lead to severe problems.
Moderate or Severe Injury
Emergency care will be needed. It may be:
Supportive care, such as oxygen, IV fluids, and nutrition therapy
Ease swelling on the brain
Manage or stop seizures
People who are not helped by these methods may need surgery. Choices are:
Burr holes made through the skull to allow excess fluid to drain
to remove a section of the skull to allow room for swollen tissue
Rehabilitation may be needed to help with long term healing. Choices are:
Physical therapy to help with strength, flexibility, and range of motion
Occupational therapy to relearn tasks of daily living
Mental health therapy to cope with emotions
The risk of this problem may be lowered by:
Using seat belts and child safety seats when in a motor vehicle
Using safe, age-appropriate methods when playing sports
Wearing a helmet when doing activities, such as:
Playing a contact sport like football, soccer, or hockey
Riding a bike or motorcycle
Using skates, scooters, and skateboards
Catching, batting, or running bases in baseball or softball
Riding a horse
Skiing or snowboarding
Falling is a common cause in older adults. The risk may be lowered by:
Using handrails when walking up and down stairs
Having safety gates by stairs and safety guards by windows
Concussion and mild traumatic brain injury. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/concussion-and-mild-traumatic-brain-injury. Accessed February 16, 2021.
Management of Concussion/Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Working Group. Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense clinical practice guideline for management of concussion/mild traumatic brain injury. VA/DoD 2016.
Traumatic brain injury and concussion. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/index.html. Accessed February 16, 2021.
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.