Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is compression of the nerve roots at the base of the spinal cord. The nerve roots (known as the cauda equina) are responsible for the sensation and function of the bladder, bowel, sexual organs, and legs. CES is a medical emergency. If treatment is not started to relieve pressure on the nerves, function below the waist may be lost.
A common cause of CES is injury of a spinal disc on the nerve roots. A spinal disc is a semi-soft mass of tissue between the bones of the spine. These bones are known as the vertebrae. The discs act as the spine’s shock absorbers. When a disc spills out into the spinal canal, it can press against the bundle of nerves, causing CES. This syndrome may also be caused by:
Accident that crushes the spine, such as a car accident or fall
Penetrating injury, such as a knife or gunshot wound
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. A neurological exam, which includes testing reflexes, vision, mental status, and strength, may also be done. A rectal exam may be done to assess anal sphincter function.
Imaging tests evaluate the spine and nearby structures. These may include:
Last reviewed November 2018 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
Rimas Lukas, MD
Last Updated: 12/20/2014
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