A. α-Linolenic acid
A1. Pan A, Chen M, et al. α-Linolenic acid and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec;96(6):1262-1273.
B1. Sibbritt D, Peng W, Lauche R, Ferguson C, Frawley J, Adams J. Efficacy of acupuncture for lifestyle risk factors for stroke: A systematic review. PLoS One. 2018;13(10):e0206288.
C1. Cook NR, Albert CM, Gaziano JM, et al. A randomized factorial trial of vitamins C and E and beta carotene in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in women: results from the Women's Antioxidant Cardiovascular Study. Arch Internal Med. 2007;167(15):1610-1618.
C2. Chen GC, Lu DB, et al. Vitamin C intake, circulating vitamin C and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013 Nov 27;2(6):e000329.
C3. Ye Y, Li J, Yuan Z. Effect of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e56803.
C4. Choe H, Hwang JY, Yun JA, et al. Intake of antioxidants and B vitamins is inversely associated with ischemic stroke and cerebral atherosclerosis. Nutr Res Pract. 2016;10(5):516-523.
C5. Jenkins DJA, Spence JD, Giovannucci EL, et al. Supplemental vitamins and minerals for CVD prevention and treatment. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71(22):2570-2584.
D. B Vitamins
D1. Zhang C, Chi FL, et al. Effect of B-vitamin supplementation on stroke: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One. 2013 Nov 25;8(11):e81577.
D2. Dong H, Pi F, et al. Efficacy of Supplementation with B Vitamins for Stroke Prevention: A Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. PLoS One. 2015 Sep 10;10(9):e0137533.
D3. Spence JD, Yi Q, et al. B vitamins in stroke prevention: time to reconsider. Lancet Neurol. 2017 Sep;16(9):750-760.
E. Dietary Fiber
E1. Chen GC, Lv DB, Pang Z, Dong JY, Liu QF. Dietary fiber intake and stroke risk: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jan;67(1):96-100.
F. Fish Intake
F1. Qin ZZ, Xu JY, et al. Effects of fatty and lean fish intake on stroke risk: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Lipids Health Dis. 2018 Nov 23;17(1):264.
G1. Wang ZM, Zhao D, et al. Flavonol intake and stroke risk: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Nutrition. 2014 May;30(5):518-523.
G2. Tang Z, Li M, et al. Dietary flavonoid intake and the risk of stroke: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. BMJ Open. 2016 Jun 8;6(6):e008680.
H. Folic Acid (folate)
H1. Huo Y, Li J, Qin X, et al. Efficacy of folic acid therapy in primary prevention of stroke among adults with hypertension in China: the CSPPT randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015;313(13):1325-1335.
H2. Zeng R, Xu CH, Xu YN, Wang YL, Wang M. The effect of folate fortification on folic acid-based homocysteine-lowering intervention and stroke risk: a meta-analysis. Public Health Nutr. 2015;18(8):1514-1521.
H3. Tian T, Yang KQ, et al. Folic Acid Supplementation for Stroke Prevention in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease. Am J Med Sci. 2017 Oct;354(4):379-387.
H4. Wang Y, Jin Y, et al. The effect of folic acid in patients with cardiovascular disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Sep;98(37):e17095.
I. Green Tea
I1. Zhang C, Qin YY, et al. Tea consumption and risk of cardiovascular outcomes and total mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Eur J Epidemiol. 2015 Feb;30(2):103-113.
I2. Pang J, Zhang Z, et al. Green tea consumption and risk of cardiovascular and ischemic related diseases: A meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol. 2016 Jan 1;202:967-974.
J. Homocysteine-Lowering Interventions
J1. Martí-Carvajal AJ, Solà I, et al. Homocysteine-lowering interventions for preventing cardiovascular events. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Aug 17;8:CD006612.
K1. Leermakers ET, Darweesh SK, et al. The effects of lutein on cardiometabolic health across the life course: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Feb;103(2):481-494.
L1. Cheng HM, Koutsidis G, et al. Lycopene and tomato and risk of cardiovascular diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2019;59(1):141-158.
M. Multivitamins and Minerals
M1. Kim J, Choi J, et al. Association of Multivitamin and Mineral Supplementation and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2018 Jul;11(7):e004224.
N. Omega-3 Fatty Acids
N1. Rizos EC, Ntzani EE, et al. Association between omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and risk of major cardiovascular disease events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2012 Sep 12;308(10):1024-1033.
N2. Aung T, Halsey J, et al. Associations of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplement Use With Cardiovascular Disease Risks: Meta-analysis of 10 Trials Involving 77 917 Individuals. JAMA Cardiol. 2018 Mar 1;3(3):225-234.
N3. Hooper L, Al-Khudairy L, et al. Omega-6 fats for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Nov 29;11:CD011094.
N4. Abdelhamid AS, Brown TJ, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Nov 30;11:CD003177.
O. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
O1. Abdelhamid AS, Martin N, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Nov 27;11:CD012345.
P. Tai Chi and Qigong
P1. Lauche R, Peng W, et al. Efficacy of Tai Chi and qigong for the prevention of stroke and stroke risk factors: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Nov;96(45):e8517.
Q. Vitamin E
Q1. Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators, Yusuf S, Dagenais G, Pogue J, Bosch J, Sleight P. Vitamin E supplementation and cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(3):154-160.
Q2. de Gaetano G; Collaborative Group of the Primary Prevention Project. Low-dose aspirin and vitamin E in people at cardiovascular risk: a randomised trial in general practice. Collaborative Group of the Primary Prevention Project. Lancet. 2001;357(9250):89-95.
Q3. Schürks M, Glynn RJ, Rist PM, Tzourio C, Kurth T. Effects of vitamin E on stroke subtypes: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2010;341:c5702.
Q4. Cheng P, Wang L, et al. Vitamin E intake and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis. Br J Nutr. 2018 Nov;120(10):1181-1188.