A. Herbs and Supplements
A1. Siebert U, Brach M, et al. Efficacy, routine effectiveness, and safety of horsechestnut seed extract in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and large observational studies. Int Angiol. 2002 Dec;21(4):305-315.
A2. Nakano S, Takekoshi H, et al. Chlorella pyrenoidosa supplementation reduces the risk of anemia, proteinuria and edema in pregnant women. Plants Food Hum Nutr. 2010;65(1):25-30.
A3. Ho D, Jagdeo J, et al. Is There a Role for Arnica and Bromelain in Prevention of Post-Procedure Ecchymosis or Edema? A Systematic Review of the Literature. Dermatol Surg. 2016 Apr;42(4):445-463.
A4. Martinez-Zapata MJ, Vernooij RW, et al. Phlebotonics for venous insufficiency. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Apr 6;4:CD003229.
A5. Kakkos SK, Allaert FA. Efficacy of Ruscus extract, HMC and vitamin C, constituents of Cyclo 3 fort®, on improving individual venous symptoms and edema: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials. Int Angiol. 2017 Apr;36(2):93-106.
A6. Kakkos SK, Nicolaides AN. Efficacy of micronized purified flavonoid fraction (Daflon®) on improving individual symptoms, signs and quality of life in patients with chronic venous disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials. Int Angiol. 2018 Apr;37(2):143-154.
B. Other Therapies
B1. Smyth RM, Aflaifel N, et al. Interventions for varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Oct 19;(10):CD001066.
B2. Müller M, Klingberg K, et al. Manual lymphatic drainage and quality of life in patients with lymphoedema and mixed oedema: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Qual Life Res. 2018 Jun;27(6):1403-1414.