American College of Phlebology (ACP) practice guideline on treatment of superficial venous disease of lower leg can be found at ACP 2016 Feb 3.
Chronic venous insufficiency. Society for Vascular Surgery website. Available at: https://vascular.org/patient-resources/vascular-conditions/chronic-venous-insufficiency. Accessed November 24, 2020.
Chronic venous insufficiency and postphlebitic syndrome. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular-disorders/peripheral-venous-disorders/chronic-venous-insufficiency-and-postphlebitic-syndrome. Accessed November 24, 2020.
Venous insufficiency. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/venous-insufficiency. Updated August 18, 2016. Accessed July 11, 2018.
3/30/2015 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance https://www.dynamed.com/condition/venous-insufficiency. Dos Santos Crisóstomo RS, Costo DS, et al. Influence of manual lymphatic drainage on health-related quality of life and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015;96(2):283-291.
Last reviewed September 2020 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
Marcin Chwistek, MD
Last Updated: 4/20/2021
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