There is no cure for pemphigus, but treatment may help control your condition. If left untreated, pemphigus can lead to death.
Treatment aims to control the disease and prevent infection of the blistering lesions.
If a drug triggered pemphigus, the doctor will stop that medication. In some cases, stopping the drug is all that is needed for recovery.
Wound care is important to prevent infections. The wounds are treated similarly to severe
burns. They will be cleaned and protected from further contamination. Antibiotic medications will also be applied to the wounds to prevent infections.
Medications can usually help control symptoms. However, these medications can also produce serious side effects. Your doctor may order blood and urine tests to check for adverse effects.
Medications to help control pemphigus include:
Steroids—reduce swelling and calm the immune system
Topical steroids, including injection into specific lesions
Immunosuppressive medications—decrease the strength of your immune system
Antibiotics—treat or prevent infection
Medicated mouthwash—for pain relief
IV immunoglobulin—immune system elements from a healthy immune system, often given in combination a biologic antineoplastic agent
It takes some time for the immune system to clear. In fact, it may be several months or years for the skin sores to disappear. Some may have a complete remission after a period of medication treatment. Others will need to continue smaller doses of medication between outbreaks.
Sores in the mouth can make eating and dental care difficult. It is important to maintain good dental hygiene. If you cannot brush because of mouth sores, talk to your dentist. They can provide alternative ways to keep you mouth clean.
Lesions in the mouth can also make it difficult to eat. Soft diets may help until the lesions heal. Talk to a dietitian if you are having trouble getting adequate nutrition with a soft diet.
Avoid foods that can cause irritation in your mouth. This includes foods that are high in acids, spicy, or hard.
Good overall nutrition helps the body heal and fight disease.
Some foods may also make your symptoms worse. They may also trigger the onset of more sores. Foods that have been linked to these problems include garlic, onions, and leeks. Keep track of the foods that seem to cause a reaction in your skin. Read the labels of all foods to make sure they do not contain foods that can set off a reaction.
Paraneoplastic pemphigus may require the removal of a tumor. The removal may improve the disorder or decrease symptoms.
There are no current guidelines to prevent pemphigus because the cause is unknown.
Martin LK, Werth V, Villanueva E, Segall J, Murrell DF. Interventions for pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(1):CD006263.
Pemphigus. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease (NIAMS) website. Available at:http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Pemphigus/default.asp#10. Updated June 2015. Accessed December 15, 2017.
Pemphigus Foliaceus. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/dermatologic-disorders/bullous-diseases/pemphigus-foliaceus. Updated August 2016. Accessed December 15, 2017.
Pemphigus vulgaris. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/dermatologic-disorders/bullous-diseases/pemphigus-vulgaris. Updated August 2016. Accessed December 15, 2017.
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