Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe and less common form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). PMDD causes physical and emotional symptoms that happen 1 to 2 weeks before a menstrual period. These problems impact life.
The cause is not known.
PMDD is more common in women of reproductive age and women who are White. Things that may raise the risk are:
A personal or family history of
mental health problems, such as depression
Having a family member with PMS or PMDD
Being overweight or obese
Extra stress or a traumatic life event
Microscopic View of Hormone Receptor
Menstruation causes many hormonal changes, which may play a role in PMDD.
Appetite changes, such as eating too much or strong food cravings
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. This may be enough to make the diagnosis. You may be asked to keep track of the problems you have over 2 menstrual cycles. This may confirm PMDD.
In women who do not menstruate, blood tests may be done to check hormone levels against symptoms.
The goal of treatment is to ease physical and emotional symptoms. PMDD is first treated with habit changes. Medicines may be used when symptoms do not get better with these changes.
Choices may be:
Exercising 3 times a week to ease symptoms and promote feelings of well-being
Lowering stress through things like medicine, deep breathing, yoga, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
Over the counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to ease physical symptoms
Oral contraceptives to suppress ovulation
Antidepressants to ease depression, irritability, and some physical symptoms
There are no guidelines to lower the risk of PMDD. The cause is not known.
Hofmeister S, Bodden S. Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Am Fam Physician. 2016 Aug 1;94(3):236-240.
PMS and PMDD. MGH Center for Women's Health website. Available at: http://womensmentalhealth.org/specialty-clinics/pms-and-pmdd. Accessed January 17, 2020.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/premenstrual-dysphoric-disorder.html. Updated May 14, 2019. Accessed January 17, 2020.
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