A. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
A1. Trebatická J, Kopasová S, et al. Treatment of ADHD with French maritime pine bark extract, Pycnogenol. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;15(6):3290335.
A2. Sarris J, Kean J, et al. Complementary medicines (herbal and nutritional products) in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): a systematic review of the evidence. Complement Ther Med. 2011 Aug;19(4):216-227.
A3. Anheyer D, Lauche R, et al. Herbal medicines in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A systematic review. Complement Ther Med. 2017 Feb;30:14-23.
B. Bone Loss After Menopause
B1. Panahande SB, Maghbooli Z, et al. Effects of French maritime pine bark extract (Oligopin®) supplementation on bone remodeling markers in postmenopausal osteopenic women: A randomized clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2019 Apr;33(4):1233-1240.
C. Cancer Treatment Support
C1. Brooker S, Martin S, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase II trial of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with radiation-induced breast induration. Radiother Oncol. 2006 Apr;79(1):45-51.
D. Cardiovascular Disease Risk
D1. Kar P, Laight D, et al. Effects of grape seed extract in Type 2 diabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial examining metabolic markers, vascular tone, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity. Diabet Med. 2009 May;26(5):526-531.
D2. Drieling RL, Gardner CD, et al. No beneficial effects of pine bark extract on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Arch Intern Med. 2010 Sep 27;170(17):1541-1547.
D3. Valls RM, Llauradó E, et al. Effects of low molecular weight procyanidin rich extract from french maritime pine bark on cardiovascular disease risk factors in stage-1 hypertensive subjects: Randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled intervention trial. Phytomedicine. 2016 Nov 15;23(12):1451-1461.
E. Chronic Disorders
E1. Schoonees A, Visser J, et al. Pycnogenol® (extract of French maritime pine bark) for the treatment of chronic disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Apr 18;(4):CD008294.
F1. Suzuki N, Uebaba K, et al. French maritime pine bark extract significantly lowers the requirement for analgesic medication in dysmenorrhea: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Reprod Med. 2008 May;53(5):338-346.
G1. Díaz Sánchez RM, Castillo-Dalí G, et al. A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial in the Gingivitis Prevention with an Oligomeric Proanthocyanidin Nutritional Supplement. Mediators Inflamm. 2017;2017:7460780.
H. High Blood Pressure
H1. Sivaprakasapillai B, Edirisinghe I, et al. Effect of grape seed extract on blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Metabolism. 2009 Dec;58(12):1743-1746.
H2. Feringa HH,Laskey DA, et al. The effect of grape seed extract on cardiovascular risk markers: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111(8):1173-1181.
H3. Ras RT, Zock PL, et al. Effect of polyphenol-rich grape seed extract on ambulatory blood pressure in subjects with pre- and stage I hypertension. Br J Nutr. 2013 Dec;110(12):2234-2241.
H4. Park E, Edirisinghe I, et al. Effects of grape seed extract beverage on blood pressure and metabolic indices in individuals with pre-hypertension: a randomised, double-blinded, two-arm, parallel, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2016 Jan 28;115(2):226-38.
H5. Zhang H, Liu S, et al. The impact of grape seed extract treatment on blood pressure changes: a meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016;95(33):e4247.
I. High Cholesterol
I1. Razavi SM, Gholamin S, et al. Red grape seed extract improves lipid profiles and decreases oxidized low-density lipoprotein in patients with mild hyperlipidemia. J Med Food. 2013 Mar;16(3):255-258.
J. Knee Osteoarthritis
J1. Cisár P, Jány R, et al. Effect of pine bark extract (Pycnogel) on symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. Phytother Res. 2008;1087-1092.
K1. Yang HM, Liao MF, et al. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on the effect of Pycnogenol on the climacteric syndrome in peri-menopausal women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2007;86(8):978-985.
K2. Kohama T, Negami M. Effect of low-dose French maritime pine bark extract on climacteric syndrome in 170 perimenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Reprod Med. 2013 Jan-Feb;58(1-2):39-46.
K3. Terauchi M, Horiguchi N, et al. Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on menopausal symptoms, body composition, and cardiovascular parameters in middles-aged women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Menopause. 2014;21(9):990-996.
L1. Chayasirisobhon S. Use of a pine bark extract and antioxidant vitamin combination product as therapy for migraine in patients refractory to pharmacologic medication. Headache. 2006 May;46(5):788-793.
M1. Rayyan M, Terkawi T, et al. Efficacy of grape seed extract gel in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A randomized clinical study. J Investig Clin Dent. 2018;9(2):e12318.
N. Photoaged Facial Skin
N1. M, Sato N, et al. Oral administration of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol(®)) improves clinical symptoms in photoaged facial skin. Clin Interv Aging. 2012;7:275-286.
O. Post-Thrombotic Syndrome Prevention
O1. Errichi BM, Belcaro G, et al. Prevention of post thrombotic syndrome with Pycnogenol® in a twelve month study. Panminerva Med. 2011 Sep;53(3 Suppl 1):21-27.
P. Venous Insufficiency
P1. Cesarone MR, Belcaro G, et al. Improvement of signs and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency and microangiopathy with Pycnogenol: a prospective, controlled study. Phytomedicine. 2010 Sep;17(11):835-839.
P2. Martinez-Zapata MJ, Vernooij RW, et al. Phlebotonics for venous insufficiency. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Apr 6;4:CD003229.
Q. Wound Healing
Q1. Hemmati AA, Foroozan M, et al. The topical effect of grape seed extract 2% cream on surgery wound healing. Glob J Health Sci. 2014 Oct 29;7(3):52-58.
Q2. Izadpanah A, Soorgi S, et al. Effect of grape seed extract ointment on cesarean section wound healing: A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2019 May;35:323-328.