Coccidioidomycosis (also called Valley fever) is a fungal infection. It can affect the lungs. In some people, the infection can be serious and needs treatment.
Valley fever is caused by a fungus found in the soil of certain areas. When soil with the fungus is disturbed, it gets into the air. From there, it can be inhaled into the lungs.
The disease cannot spread from person to person.
Valley fever is found in the southwestern and western U.S.. It is also found in parts of Central and South America. The risk is highest for people living, working, or traveling in those areas. Those most at risk are:
People exposed to dirt and dust, such as:
People in the military
Those at risk of getting severe Valley fever are:
People with weak immune systems
Pregnant women, especially in the third trimester
People of African or Filipino background
Most people with Valley fever have no symptoms. In those that do, symptoms happen 7 to 21 days after exposure. They may be:
Fever and chills
Feeling tired or weak—may last a few months
Sometimes the fungus affects other parts of the body.
The doctor will ask about your symptoms, health, and travel history. A physical exam will be done.
Tests may include:
Blood tests—to check for signs of illness
Sputum smear or culture—to look for the fungus
Biopsy—a sample of tissue is taken and tested, if the diagnosis is unclear
Spinal tapand fluid analysis—if there are brain or nerve symptoms
Imaging, such as chest x-rays or CT scan—to see if other areas of the body are affected
For many, Valley fever goes away on its own. Treatment depends on how severe the infection is. Options may be:
Bed rest and fluids—to speed recovery
Antifungal medicine—may be prescribed for those with severe illness or risks
Surgery—for those with certain long-term effects or severe illness
To reduce the risk of Valley fever in high risk areas:
Avoid dust, gardening, digging, and yard work.
Wear an N95 mask when working in soil or in dusty areas.
About valley fever. Valley Fever Center for Excellence website. Available at http://vfce.arizona.edu/valley-fever-people/about-valley-fever. Accessed March 31, 2021.
Coccidioidomycosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/coccidioidomycosis . Accessed March 31, 2021.
Gabe LM, Malo J, et al. Diagnosis and management of coccidioidomycosis. Clin Chest Med. 2017;38(3):417-433.
Valley fever (coccidioidomycosis) risk & prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/coccidioidomycosis/risk-prevention.html. Accessed March 31, 2021.
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