Having people in your family with FD raises your risk of getting it.
Having a health problem, injury, or certain genes also raises your chance of getting secondary FD.
Symptoms may include:
Rapid or uncontrollable blinking of both eyes
A hard time writing
Pulling or dragging of a foot
FD may get worse with:
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. You may need a neurologic exam and an eye exam. You may be sent to a speech-language pathologist, physical or occupational therapists, and genetic counselors.
Dystonia. International Parkinson Movement Disorder Society website. Available at: http://www.movementdisorders.org/MDS/About/Movement-Disorder-Overviews/Dystonia.htm. Accessed June 20, 2018.
Dystonia. The Canadian Movement Disorder Group website. Available at: http://www.cmdg.org/Movement_/dystonia/dystonia.htm. Accessed June 20, 2018.
Gaenslen A. Transcranial sonography in dystonia. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2010;90:179-187.
Meige Syndrome. National Organization for Rare Disorders. Available at: http://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/meige-syndrome. Accessed July 11, 2013.
Newby RE, Thorpe DE, Kempster PA, Alty JE. A history of dystonia: ancient to modern. Mov Disord Clin Pract. 2017;4(4):478-485.
NINDS dystonias information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/dystonias/dystonias.htm. Updated July 2, 2013. Accessed July 11, 2013.
What is dystonia? Dystonia Medical Research Foundation website. Available at: https://www.dystonia-foundation.org/what-is-dystonia. Accessed July 11, 2013.
Last reviewed May 2018 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
Rimas Lukas, MD
Last Updated: 6/19/2018
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