A laminectomy is usually done to help take pressure off your spinal cord or a nerve running out from your spinal cord. It is also done to gain access to the spinal cord, bones, and discs that are below the lamina.
Herniated discs, bony spurs, or other problems can cause narrowing of the canals that the nerves and spinal cord run through. This can irritate the nerve if it gets too narrow. Often, a laminectomy is done along with a disc removal to help make the canal larger and take pressure off the nerve being irritated.
When the spinal cord or other nerves get irritated, they can cause:
Pain in an arm or leg
Physical therapy and medication will be tried first.
The surgery is done when other treatments have not worked. It is most often done to treat symptoms that keep getting worse.
Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Your doctor will review potential problems, like:
Damage to nerves, resulting in pain, numbness, tingling, or
Problems related to anesthesia
Factors that may increase the risk of complications include:
Another medical condition, particularly heart or lung problems
If the surgery is done
with minimally invasive techniques, you will only need a few small incisions. A scope and small instruments will be inserted into these incisions. In some cases, open surgery will be done. This involves making a larger cut in the skin over the area in the back.
Once the area is visible, part or all of the lamina will be removed using a drill or other tools. The affected nerves may be moved into a better location to reduce further irritation. The spinal cord and discs between the vertebra will be inspected. If needed, the disc will also be removed to reduce pressure on the spinal cord or nerves.
Other issues like bone spurs will be addressed as well.
When the work is complete, the incision will be closed with stitches or staples.
Anesthesia will prevent pain during the procedure. You will have pain during recovery. Pain medication will help manage pain.
Average Hospital Stay
The length of stay will depend on the amount of work that was done. You may be able to go home the same day or you may need to stay in the hospital for a couple of days.
At the Hospital
Recovery at the hospital may include:
Walking with assistance the evening after surgery or the next day
A back or neck brace
Special socks or boots to help prevent blood clots
The type and extent of surgery will determine how long you will be in recovery. Activities that place stress on the back such as bending or lifting will be restricted for a few months. Your return to work will depend on the physical requirements of your job. Staying active with appropriate activity like walking is important to speed recovery. Physical therapy will be recommended to help regain strength and flexibility.
Medications will help manage pain and swelling pain.
Call Your Doctor
It is important for you to monitor your recovery after you leave the hospital. Alert your doctor to any problems right away. If any of the following occur, call your doctor:
Signs of infection, including fever and chills
Redness, swelling, increasing pain, excessive bleeding, or any discharge from the incision site
Persistent nausea and/or vomiting
Pain that you cannot control with the medications you've been given
Cough, shortness of breath, or chest pain
Trouble urinating or having a bowel movement
New numbness or weakness in the hips, groin, or legs
Joint pain, fatigue, stiffness, rash, or other new symptoms
If you think you have an emergency, call for medical help right away.
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Herniated disc. American Association of Neurological Surgeons website. Available at: http://www.aans.org/Patient%20Information/Conditions%20and%20Treatments/Herniated%20Disc.aspx. Accessed November 13, 2017.
Laminectomy. Encyclopedia of Surgery website. Available at: http://www.surgeryencyclopedia.com/Fi-La/Laminectomy.html. Accessed November 13, 2017.
Lindström D, Azodi O, et al. Effects of a perioperative smoking cessation intervention on postoperative complications: A randomized trial. Ann Surg. 2008;248(5):739-745.
Pain. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Chronic-Pain-Information-Page. Accessed November 13, 2017.
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