Carbon monoxide is easily absorbed through the lungs. Hemoglobin carries oxygen in the blood to the entire body. Carbon monoxide binds tightly with hemoglobin and takes the place of the oxygen. Tissue then becomes starved for oxygen. Brain tissue is very much at risk.
Faulty or improperly vented equipment causes a build up of carbon monoxide in semi- or enclosed spaces. Exposure can be the result of:
Motor vehicle engines that are left running inside an enclosed garage
Any heating and cooking devices that burn coal, wood, or gas
Barbecue grills, gas grills, or camp stoves used inside your home, garage, or basement
Gas oven ranges used to heat your home when the power goes out
Power generators used inside your home, garage, or basement
Carbon monoxide poisoning is more common in infants or older people. Other factors that may increase your risk of carbon monoxide poisoning include:
(EKG)—to check the heart's electrical activity and look for signs of heart damage
Move away from the source of the carbon monoxide. Breathe fresh air outdoors. Mild symptoms usually start to resolve after getting away from the gas.
Always seek medical care at the closest emergency room. Explain that you think you may have been exposed to carbon monoxide. The doctor will give you oxygen until your symptoms go away and carbon monoxide levels in your blood drop.
Other therapies may include:
Ventilator—to assist in breathing for people in a coma, or who have serious heart or nerve involvement
Avoiding exposure to carbon monoxide is the key to preventing carbon monoxide poisoning. Since the gas has no odor or color, you will not know if it is present. The following suggestions can reduce your chance of exposure:
Have an expert check your fireplace chimney every year. Debris can block vents, causing a build-up of carbon monoxide.
Before the start of the heating season, have a professional check that your gas and kerosene appliances are working properly.
Make sure all gas and combustion appliances are vented to the outdoors through pipes with no holes.
Do not use your gas stove or oven for heating your house.
Do not use a barbecue grill, camp stove, or unvented kerosene heater inside your house or tent.
Do not use generators or other gasoline-powered engines indoors.
Only buy and use equipment that carries the seal of the American Gas Association or the Underwriters' Laboratory.
Do not rely exclusively on a carbon monoxide detector. Use one only as backup, in addition to preventive measures. Follow manufacturer's directions for installation and maintenance.
Ask a mechanic to check your car's exhaust system every year.
Do not run the car in the garage, especially with the door closed. Start the car and take it outside.
Do not leave the door from the garage to the house open when the car engine is running.
Juurlink DN, Buckley NA, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen for carbon monoxide poisoning. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(1):CD002041.
Weaver LK, Hopkins RO, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen for acute carbon monoxide poisoning. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347:1057-1067.
World Health Organization (WHO) Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: health effects, research needs and recommended actions by regulators. World Health Organization website. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2005/9241593857_eng.pdf. Accessed November 28, 2017.
Last reviewed November 2018 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
James Cornell, MD
Last Updated: 12/20/2014
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