You will be asked about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done.
The allergy can be confirmed with a:
Skin prick test to look for a skin reaction when exposed to a food
Blood test to look for an antibody that is present when you are exposed to a food
An oral food challenge to watch for a reaction to a food that you eat with a healthcare provider present
You may need to see a doctor who treats allergies.
Some people may need medical care right away.
A food allergy can be managed. Options are:
Avoid the Food
The best way to manage this allergy is to avoid the allergen, foods that contain it, and foods that may have been around it. Always read food labels. Do this even if you do not think a food has the allergen in it. Most labels will state whether the factory where a food was made also works with the allergen. Always ask for the items in homemade foods to check for the allergen. Ask if the item was made with utensils that have come in contact with the allergen.
People with a mild reaction may be able to take medicine to ease symptoms. The medicine should only be used if a person is exposed to an allergen by accident. Medicines may be:
Antihistamines to decrease swelling and itching
Corticosteroids to treat severe swelling and itching
People with severe reactions may need epinephrine. It is injected into the thigh. It needs to be carried at all times.
There is no known way to prevent food allergies. Parents should talk to their child's doctor about when to start foods that are highly allergenic, such as peanuts.
Bird JA, Lack G, Perry TT. Clinical management of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015 Jan-Feb;3(1):1-11.
Food allergy. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/food-allergy. Updated October 29, 2018. Accessed September 18, 2019.
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