The cause of ovarian cysts depend on the type of cyst. The type of cyst a person has depends on where it forms or what material is in it.
Functional cysts are the most common type. It is normal for cysts to develop as part of the ovulation cycle. However, functional cysts stay or grow. The two types are:
Follicular cyst—Ovaries have a number of follicles (a fluid-filled sac) that each contain an egg. A follicle should release the egg during ovulation. A follicular cyst is caused by an egg that is not released. The cyst is made up of the follicle, trapped egg, and fluids.
Corpus luteum cyst—The egg is released, but the follicle closes up. This causes excess fluid to collect and create a cyst.
Less common types are:
Teratoma or dermoid cyst—May be present at birth or happen later in life. They contain tissue from other parts of the body, such as teeth and hair.
endometriosis, a condition that allows uterine tissue to grow outside of the uterus. Cysts may grow and become filled with fluid, often blood.
Cystadenoma—Grows from cells that line the outside of the ovary. Can become large and painful.
Some cysts can also be caused by pelvic infections that have spread to the ovaries.
Cysts are more common in people with regular, monthly menstrual cycles. Other things that may raise the risk are:
Prior ovarian cysts
Hormonal changes during ovulation or in response to certain fertility medicines
Pregnancy—a cyst is a normal part of early pregnancy but cysts that remain through pregnancy may cause problems
Severe pelvic infection
Most people do not have symptoms. Others may have:
Pelvic pain and pressure
Problems emptying the bladder or bowel
Needing to urinate more often
Pain during sex
An ache in the legs or lower back
Unusual vaginal bleeding
Nausea and vomiting
The doctor will ask about symptoms and past health. A pelvic exam will be done. Cysts are often found during routine pelvic exams.
Other tests may be done to find out what type of cyst you have and whether treatment is needed.
Some cysts will go away in time without treatment. A person may be watched for any changes.
Cysts that are causing problems will need to be treated. Surgery will be done to remove them. Sometimes the ovary will need to be
as well. If both ovaries are removed, menopause will begin right away.
There are no known guidelines to prevent this health problem.
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American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Committee on Practice Bulletins—Gynecology. Practice Bulletin No. 174: Evaluation and Management of Adnexal Masses. Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Nov;128(5):e210-e226.
Ovarian cysts. Office on Women's Health—US Department of Health and Human Services website. Available at: https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/ovarian-cysts. Accessed February 25, 2021.
Benign ovarian masses. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/benign-gynecologic-lesions/benign-ovarian-masses. Accessed February 25, 2021.
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