Self-mutilation or self-injury is any form of self-harm inflicted on your body without the intent to commit suicide.
Self-mutilation may be caused by associated psychological problems. Self-mutilation may be done to release emotional pain, anger, or
anxiety. It may also be done to rebel against authority, flirt with risk-taking, or feel in control. In some cases, the behavior is outside your emotional control and related to a neurological or metabolic disorder.
Self-mutilation is often associated with psychiatric disorders that may be caused by chemical imbalances in the brain.
Self-mutilation can be difficult to diagnose. People who self-mutilate often feel guilty and ashamed about their behavior. They may try to hide it. Physical harm caused by self-mutilation may be the first sign noticed during an exam. To be diagnosed, symptoms should meet the following criteria:
Excess thinking about physically harming oneself
Inability to resist harming oneself, resulting in tissue damage
Increased tension before and a sense of relief after self-injury
Having no suicidal intent in the self-mutilation
To make an accurate diagnosis, the psychologist or psychiatrist will assess other conditions, such as personality or mood disorders, and whether there is suicidal intent. A psychosocial assessment may also be given to assess a person’s mental capacity, level of distress, and presence of mental illness.
Treatment usually includes medical and psychological treatment, as well as medications.
A doctor will assess whether care needs to be provided right away to
prevent further injury.
Psychologic treatment may be done either one-to-one or in a group setting. It is usually aimed at finding and treating the underlying emotional difficulty,
trauma, or disorder. It may also include
Medications used include:
The best prevention is to get help as soon as possible for depression, trauma, emotional problems, or other disorders that may lead to self-mutilation.
Self-harm in over 8s: Short-term management and prevention of recurrence. Clinical guideline (CG16). National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence website. Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG16. Updated July 2004.
Self-injury in adolescents. American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry website. Available at: https://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/Facts_for_Families_Pages/Self_Injury_In_Adolescents_73.aspx. Updated July 2013. Accessed January 31, 2018.
Slee N, Garnefski N, van der Leeden R, Arensman E, Spinhoven P. Cognitive-behavioural intervention for self-harm: randomized controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2008;192(3):202-211.
Taiminin T, Kallio-Soukainen K, Nokso-Koivisto H, Kaljonen A, Helenius H. Contagion of deliberate self-harm among adolescent inpatients. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1998;37:(2)211-217.
Last reviewed November 2018 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
Adrian Preda, MD
Last Updated: 12/20/2014
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.